LEO Computers Society’s guide to references and holdings related to the story of LEO.If any reader knows of any other reference please let Frank Land know at f.land@lse.ac.uk Last update 13/06/2019


Books about LEO 1

Books that refer to LEO 4



UK (and online) Archives 27

International Archives 31


Museums 32



LEO Computers Society: Oral History Project 48


John Aeberhard: Reminiscences around LEO 61

The Story of LEO: The Very First Business Computer 75

The Joe Lyons Story__ Food for Thought 76




Miscellaneous and Unclassified 88


Link to separate pdf file containing

Index to documents etc. in 9 boxes of papers plus a box of journal articles and cuttings.

Click here:



Books about LEO

Anon (1952) The Layman’s Guide to LEO, Lyons.
The guide was circulated to Lyons executives and senior management to help them understand how computers, and in particular LEO, worked. The typewritten document is in part based on Ernest Lenaerts Development of the LEO Computer – see below. The manuscript was donated to the LEO Computers Society by Philip Bird in November 2017

Bird, P. (1994) ‘LEO, the First Business Computer’, Hasler Publishing.
Peter Bird joined Lyons when, as he says, ‘the pioneering years of computing were no more than folk history.’ Nonetheless, through his ‘talking with old-timers’ and delving through the Lyons archives, he has made an important contribution to the LEO story. Of particular value are the appendices which, inter alia, give details of the instruction codes, speeds, capacities and deliveries of the different models.

Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B.B., Hermon, P.M.R. and Land, F.F. (eds.) (1996) ‘User Driven Innovation: The world’s first business computer’, McGraw Hill, Maidenhead.
A first-hand account written by thirteen of the early users who developed the disciplines of systems engineering and put LEO to work on economic, time-dependent business applications, starting in 1951. Included is an edited version of the seminal report of the two Lyons executives who, after a tour of the early computer activity in the United States in 1947, recommended that Lyons acquire a computer of their own. Also included is a Science Museum interview with John Simmons.

Extracts from Reviews

Professor Dick Nolan of the Harvard University Business School writes in his introduction to the book:

"This story has the best qualities of a Harvard Business School case study: it is an important event in the history of the business.

It is a study about extraordinary people ... As confident executives they look outside their company, in other countries, at universities to discover new ways of doing things and fresh ideas. In their bold actions, trust shows through as a foundation in implementing their vision. Young people are given free reign and do not disappoint. A resulting exciting, challenging ‘can-do' culture is heard in the words of the people who were there."

Dr Terry Gourvish, Director Business History Unit, LSE, in LSE Business History Newssheet,

"This is a major contribution to the history of computing and computers in the UK. A full scale case study of LEO computers, written by members of the team who experienced all its trials and tribulations, it provides a fascinating insight into the development by J. Lyons & Co. of the first business computer in the UK."

Neil Fitzgerald, editor of CA magazine, in The Scotsman, Business section. .

"Can-do culture, empowerment, user-driven innovation, business process re-engineering, flat organisations, quality, short lines of communications and decision making. We are led to believe that these are radical, modern ideas. However, a book that has come into my hands shows that they were being successfully harnessed almost half a century ago, to create the most significant event ever in business management.

The editors ... tell the story of how they and others built and put to work the world's first business computer. This did not happen in California's Silicon Valley, but at Cadby Hall, the ... west London premises of Lyons.

An important facet was that they felt they should always take a strategic view of the whole function to be computerised and make recommendations for improvements before going to work."

Dr John Pinkerton, review in ICL Technical Journal

"Telling the story of how the foundations of data processing were laid from 1949 onwards has evidently been a labour of love.

This is a work of scholarship but eminently readable nevertheless. It will be seen as a major contribution to the history of business computing; it is strongly recommended for anyone already working in or studying to enter the field of IT."

Michael Braithwaite, Deloitte, Touche, European Journal of Information Systems.

"I commend this book to a wide audience. To the general reader it stands as a very well written and exciting account of technological innovation. To the business school student it presents a remarkable story of technological success that, as a commercial venture was flawed, perhaps by factors beyond the control of the players."

Professor George Mitchell, review published Journal of Operational Research Society..

"This fascinating book tells the life story of LEO. Rather over a third of the book is the historical record, carefully researched and engagingly written up by Caminer. The rest is largely personal memoirs of those involved in the early days, including accounts of several innovative applications. The whole is rounded off by an evaluation by Aris. The book's value is enhanced by the style of writing. Those who worked in LEO, especially in its earlier days, including many of the book's authors, exercised an influence on the development of business computing in the UK quite disproportionate to their numbers.

I found this book a good read and one which exited several strands of thought. Although its main market will be among scholars and students of IT and business studies, it deserves a wide readership in the OR community."

John Perkins, National Computer Centre Newsletter,

"The book is a fascinating adventure story in which the dynamics of an extraordinary group of people made the seemingly impossible happen."

Professor John Ward in the Journal of Strategic Information Systems.

"The story of that first business computer: Leo - Lyons Electronic Office - is told in this book. Whilst it is history, reflection on what was achieved and not achieved and why still has many lessons of relevance to the successful use of IT today - we seem to be learning painfully and slowly!.

.... a review by John Aris of what of what he calls the ‘LEO approach' - an integrated combination of technology innovation, application and consultancy designed to enable significant business improvements from computer use in a range of situation. Many of these applications would be called ‘business process redesign' in the 1990s!

The wide range of contributors provide many different perspectives on what happened and views on why things evolved the way they did. It is a set of memoirs - often very personal ones - of a time when Britain could be said to have led the world in the application of this new technology.

... it is a book that we should all be grateful the authors took the time and trouble to get together and write. It is a story of extraordinary achievements, by a talented team..."

I. A. Lovelock in Management Accounting.

"This book is a first-hand account of how this astounding innovation came about. It is a flesh and blood, warts and all story related by the participants, brimming over with the same enthusiasm that enabled the unlikeliest of organisations to lead the way into the future that we are all familiar with today.

It concludes with different strands coming together to provide the essence of the LEO credo of comprehensive, integrated, secure, action stimulated implementations.”

Professor T. Brady, Brighton University

As well as being a fascinating piece of historical writing the book provides food for thought in the supposedly computer literate world of the 21st Century. Spectacular computer disasters such as the London Stock Exchange's Taurus system have left us with rather jaundiced perceptions about computer projects. Why were Lyons better at implementing computer systems?

One major factor was that before automating business processes the Lyons team ensured that they were well understood and ready for computerisation. Long before the prospect of computers came along, Lyons had established a systems research office with the brief to constantly search out how improvements might be made to the business by changing processes.”

Professor Paul Ceruzzi, Smithsonian Institute Washington

Most surveys of the history of computing mark the beginning of the commercial computer age with the delivery of the first UNIVAC in 1951. The better ones note the first delivery of a UNIVAC to a commercial, not government, customer (General Electric) in 1954. Only the best histories mention LEO, a computer built by the British catering company J. Lyons & Co. and first operational in September 1951, as the real beginning of commercial application of the stored-program computer.”

Ferry, Georgina (2003) ‘A Computer Called LEO’, Fourth Estate, London.
‘LEO and its creators deserve their place in history not because of what it was, but because of what it did. For LEO was the first computer in the world to be harnessed to the task of running a business.

A paperback edition was published in 2005, by Harper Perennial

Caminer H., editor (2016) ‘LEO remembered: by the people who worked on the world’s first business computers’, LEO Computers Society. Collection of reminiscences, testifying to a sense of collective endeavour among the LEO community.

Lenaerts, E. (1948) ‘Development of the LEO Computer: Brief Description of EDSAC’.
Peter Bird collected and had bound (September 1992) the photocopies of the handwritten description of EDSAC compiled by Ernest Lenaerts in October 1948, with contributions from David Caminer, Derek Hemy, Thomas Thompson and others. It formed the basis of a larger publication titled The Layman’s Guide to LEO – see below. The volume was donated to the LEO Computers Society by Philip Bird, November 2017.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1962) ‘LEO and the Managers’, Macdonald, London.
The paperless office concept of the Lyons Comptroller, whose support was vital to the LEO project

Books that refer to LEO

The history of ICL is synonymous with the history of the British computer industry. ICL was formed by a series of mergers in response to the increasing market dominance of the large American corporations, particularly IBM. The struggles between these two giants and the inherent problems and implications of competing with US multi-nationals are examined in detail in Campbell Kelly's wide-ranging study. At the time of writing in the late 1980s, the author was given unrestricted access to ICL archives and his lucid account of the company, its set-backs and successes makes for a compelling and informative read. This book, which was Winner of the Wadsworth Prize for Business History (1989), will be of great interest to anyone involved in business or the computing industry.

Chapter 6 presents an anthology of quotations about LEO, mainly from LEO personnel.

Grindley, C.B.B., (1975), Systematics, McGraw-Hill, New York. Based on his experience working with LEO, Grindley sets out a ‘language’ for defining information systems.

Jones, Capers (2014) ‘The Technical and Social History of Software Engineering’, Addison-Wesley. Capers Jones’s book is a monumental history of computers and computing with a prime focus on ‘software engineering’. Jones has an introductory chapter which deals with the pre-history from the beginning of civilisation to 1930, then chapters dealing with each decade up to 2013. His chapter on the 1950s includes the LEO story, brief (pages 85, 86, in a 452 page book), but giving some weight to the place of LEO in computing history.

Lavington, Simon H. (1980) ‘Early British Computers: The Story of Vintage Computers and The People Who Built Them’, Manchester University Press, http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/EarlyBritish.html#TOC
Chapter 13, pages 68-77, gives a brief history of LEO and English Electric, including a timeline.

Lavington, Simon, (2011), Moving Targets: Elliott-Automation and the Dawn of the Computer Age 1947 – 67, Computer History, Springer. Although the book is primarily a history of Elliott-Automation it has a number of references to Lyons and LEO.

Lavington, Simon (ed.) (2012) ‘Alan Turing and his Contemporaries’, British Computer Society. 111 pages, summarises the background to all the early British stored-program projects
from 1945 – 1951.

Lean, T, (2016), Electronic Dreams: How 1980s Britain learned to love the computer, Bloomsberry/Sigma. The book includes references to LEO and its early success. See also Review by Jonathan Margolis in Financial Times, below.

Marshall, Stephen (2015) ‘The Story of the Computer: A Technical and Business History’, Kindle edition available. 592 pages the story of computing up to, but not including, the advent of smart phones. The LEO project is noted in Chapter 6, pages 198-189 and further mentions are made elsewhere such as the donation to EDSAC (Chapter 5, page 185). Reviewed by Dik Leatherdale in Resurrection Issue Number 79 Autumn 2017.

Morelli, M, (2001),Dalle calcolatrici ai computer degli anni Cinquanta, Franco Angeli, pp. 341-44

O'Regan, G. (2012) ‘A Brief History of Computing’, 2nd ed, Springer, London. Chapter 3, ‘Early Computers’, provides a brief account of EDSAC and LEO.

O’Regan, Gerard (2015), ‘Pillars of Computing: A Compendium of Select, Pivotal Technology Firms’, Springer. Chapter 21, pages 135-138, provides an account of LEO Computers Limited.

O’Regan, Gerard (2016) ‘Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer’, Springer. For undergraduate students, Chapter 5.3, page 75, describes LEO I.

Roebuck, K. (2011) ‘Managed Print Services: High-impact Technology - What You Need to Know’, Tebbo. The book is a type of encyclopaedia including a wide range of technology topics each supplemented by a rich set of references. A short, well sourced, chapter on LEO, page 50-56, is included.

Rose, Michael (1969) ‘Computers, Managers and Society’, Pelican.
The author notes LEO amongst the pioneers and provides a brief account of the LEO story.

Shirley, Stephanie, (2012), ‘Let IT Go’, Andrews UK Limited. The book is Dame Shirley’s autobiography and as such deals with much more than her involvement with IT and the establishment of Freelance Programmers. It is included in this listing because the formation of F. International, overlaps the foundation and growth of LEO Computers and provides a further perspective on developments in that period. It also notes the help given to her by Kit Grindley (see obituaries below) in the early days of her company.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1970) ‘Management of change. The role of Information', Gee & Co, London.

Stern, Nancy B. (1981) ‘From ENIAC to UNIVAC: Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computers Hardcover’, Digital Press, March 16, 1981. Pages 148 -151 report on the precedence of the LEO initiative in the development of business computing.

Tatnall, Arthur (ed.) (2012) ‘Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories’, in ‘Series: IFIP Advances in Information and Communications Technology’, Vol. 387, Springer, November 2012. Chapter 2, Frank Land, Remembering LEO, pp. 22-42.

Turing, Dermot, (2018), The Story of Computing, Arcturus Publishing , London, includes a section on the Lyons/LEO place in the story of computing, and includes photo of LEO, Chapter 6, pages 106 to 110. Sir Dermot Turing is a nephew of Alan Turing, and 12th Baronet Turing. The book provides a comprehensive and readable account of the story of computing from abacus to a glimpse of how the story might develop in the future.

Various authors (1956) ‘The Electronic Office’, a collection of articles assembled by the Liverpool and Merseyside Branch of the Office Management Association following their conference in April. Includes articles by David Caminer and Oliver Standingford. Bound copy held by Hilary Caminer.


Ainsworth, B. (2013) Leo Computers in Australia in Museum Victoria Collections http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682

Agar, J. (1996) The Provision of Digital Computers to British Universities up to the Flowers Report (1996), Computer journal, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp 630-642.

Anderson, D., Delve, J. (2004) Pioneers of Payroll on computers: LEO, the Army, the Navy Dockyards and De Havilland, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, ISSN: 1058-6180.

Anon (1947-1954) LEO Chronicle, Lyons and Office Management Association. Papers of John Simmons, Reference Number: 363/S4/11, Warwick University, Modern Records Centre. The Chronicle is a diary of events and activities relating to the development and operation of LEO computing – an invaluable source. http://contentdm.warwick.ac.uk/cdm/ref/collection/leo/id/242

Anon (1949) ‘A non-technical description of E.D.S.A.C’. How the Cambridge Electronic Calculator works, J. Lyons & Co., June 1949.

Anon (1954) LEO Lyons Electronic Office, Published by J. Lyons & Co., Cadby Hall, Feb 16th.

Anon (1954) ‘Electronic Abacus’, The Economist, pp. 789-791, 13th March, probably authored by Mary Goldring.

Anon (1955) Leaflet on "Computer Training Courses", by LEO Computers.

Anon (1957) It’s Quicker by Computer: ‘LEO’ Works our Rail Distances, The Times, June 24.

Anon (1957) Political & Economic Planning, ‘The LEO Computer: a case study in the use of an electronic computer in routine clerical work’, Three Case Studies in Automation, July, probably authored by Leonard Tivey.

Anon (1960) ‘Getting to grips with computers’, The Times Newspaper, reprinted in The Times Newspaper, August 4th 2000.

Anon (1960) ‘Notes on Commissioning of LEO Automatic Office at the Ministry of Pensions’, The Vol. 15Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.198, January.

Anon (1960) Advanced Data Processing, a clip from the "Engineer" for 22 July 1960, probably the earliest reference to LEO II in print, and concentrating on the microprogramming feature.

Anon (1960) Command by Magnetic Rings, a clip from New Scientist for 21 July 1960.

Anon (1960) Introducing LEO III, a clip from The Stock Exchange Gazette for 12 August 1960, announcing the development of LEO III in more general terms.

Anon, (1963-64), New Computers for the Post Office, Post Office Telecomms Journal, Vol, 15,16, an account with photos of the Post Office purchase of two LEO III computers for over £1 million.

Anon (1963) EE-LEO Brochure for LECTOR System, Data Processing Journal, February, page 15.

Anon (1964), Quis LEO Aptitude test, comprising Introduction and Explanation, Instructions for giving test, the Test Itself, Correct answers’ The document as digitized by John Hoey in Australia and a copy is available from Frank Land, f.land@lse.ac.uk

Anon, (1965-66), The Post Office enters the Computer Age, Post Office Telecomms Journal, Vol. 16.17, reporting on the purchase of 5 computers valued at more than £2 million.

Anon (1965) Daily Mail Obituary for LEO I, 9th January. Plus other items about LEO initiatives in Eastern Europe.

Anon (1967), September LyonsMail short note and photos of Lyons Managing Director Samuel Salmon viewing restart of LEO III/7 following the catastrophic fire at the Lyons computer installation. More information on the incident can be found in Peter Bird’s book LEO: The First Business Computer page 164 to 166.

Anon, LEO Computer, a useful summary of the LEO story which does need editing, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEO_(computer)

Anon, (circa 1958), LEO II at Stewarts and Lloyds, in http://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Electronic%20Computers.pdf

Anon, LEO Computers in Australia, http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682

Anon (2017), Quotation from a Director of J. Lyons, “I attended a Board meeting when for 1 hour and 59 minutes there was a heated debate about the price of a cup of tea in Teashops.
‘A rise of a penny or half a penny!’
At the end of the row John Simmons, of whom everyone was in awe, asked for a further 2 million pounds for work on Leo. Passed without debate.”

Anon, (2018), Meet LEO, the World’s First Business Computer, London Science Museum Website. The LEO story including photos in 1200 words, Story Content: What is the LEO computer? Why did Lyons tea shops need a computer? Who built LEO—and how? What tasks could LEO carry out? What difference did LEO make to efficiency? What else was LEO used for? Were there other computers to rival LEO? Is LEO still being used today? Find out more. https://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects-and-stories/meet-leo-worlds-first-business-computer

Archibald, H., (1997), Stewarts and Lloyds Steelworks, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 20, pp. 243 – 248.

Aris, J.B.B., (1997), The LEO approach an evaluation in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 27, pp.321-336.

Aris, J.B.B. (1996) ‘Systems Design – Then and Now’, Resurrection, Journal of
the Computer Conservation Society, Summer.

Aris, J.B.B., (1998), Inventing Systems Engineering, Proceedings of Conference Computers in Europe: Past, Present and Future, Kyiv, pp 33 – 46, October.

Aris, J.B.B. (2000) ‘Inventing Systems Engineering’, IEEE Annals of the History of
, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 4-15, July-September.

Aris, J.B.B., Land, F.F., Mellor, A. (eds.) (2003) LEO Conference Report, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 253-398, December.

Avery, R. (2001) The World’s first commercial computer went into operation 50 years ago in Britain. Who developed it?, The Times Supplement Tomorrow’s Today, 24 page supplement sponsored by Microsoft, pp 20-21, May 31st. Hilary Caminer holds a copy.

Beck, Arnold, (194) Oral History, Electronic Engineer, interviewed by William Asprey of the Charles Babbage Institute, describes working for Standard Telephone and Cables in the late 1940s on designing thermionic valves for Lyons and EDSAC which failed. Asked why they failed he notes “Mainly because it wasn't reliable enough. I don't want to make excuses, but when development things like that started, people didn't really appreciate the standards of reliability that were required. Down the road here at EDSAC they didn't appreciate the troubles they'd get with the cathode failures on lots of their double diodes” https://ethw.org/Oral-History:Arnold_Beck

Behr, B. (ed.) (2014) LEO Computers Society Newsletter, Autumn, with contributions from Jessica Bradford (Science Museum), Peter Byford, Bernard Behr, David Holdsworth (Computer Conservation Society), Frank Land and Michael Storey.

Behr, B. (ed.) (2015) LEO Computers Society Newsletter, summer, with contributions from Peter Byford, Ralph Land, Norman Witkin, Neil Lamming, Gloria Guy, Bill Sant and David Holdsworth. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/NewsletterSummer2015.pdf

Bentley, R. (2003). The Teashops that ruled the IT World, Computer Weekly. Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/The-tea-shops-that-ruled-the-IT-world Based on review of Georgina Ferry’s book A Computer called LEO.

Bergin, T. J. (2007) Mainframe Computers, a listing of mainframe computer manufacturers providing a chronology of their main products, including LEO Computers and the successor companies: http://ds-wordpress.haverford.edu/bitbybit/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Lecture-9-Mainframe-Computing.pdf

Bergin, T. J (1997) User-Driven Innovation: Review, ACM Computing reviews, July, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=120073&listname=search link takes you to the login page of ‘Computing Reviews’ – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Berry, T. (2002) Lessons from LEO the Lyons, Financial Director, January 2002 http://www.financialdirector.co.uk/financial-director/feature/1742501/lessons-leo-lyon

Bidmead, C. (2011) David Caminer, creator of the first business computer, Reg Hardware, Unsung Heroes of Tech, 27th September 2011 http://www.reghardware.com/2011/09/27/heroes_of_tech_david_caminer/

Bird, P. (1990/91) LEO, the Pride of Lyons, British Journal of Administrative Management,
20,21, included is brief biography of Peter Bird on page 20. https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=&preview=Peter+Bird+Bio.doc&qsid=46938116925170346278061109775943&query=peter+bird&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Blyth, T. (2015) Information Age? The challenges of displaying information and communication technologies, Science Museum Communications Spring 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.15180/150303 The Thein October 2014 including the LEO exhibit.

Bodsworth, V., (2019), Editor: LEO Matters, Newsletter of LEO Computers Society, Vol. 5, Spring, pp 1 – 14. The issue includes articles by Vince Bodsworth, Edd Thomas, Lisa McGerty, Graham Briscoe, Alan Cooper, Tony Morgan, and Dag Spicer, as well as an introduction by Peter Byford. https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Bodsworth, V.,(2019), The National Museum of Computing History “TNMoC”, LEO Matters, Vol. 5, Spring 2019, pp. 2 – 4, Newsletter of the LEO Computers Society, https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Bradford, J. (2014) Information Age at the Science Museum celebrates LEO, in Behr, B. (editor) LEO Computer Society Newsletter: http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/2014_Newsletter.pdf

Braithwaite, M. (1998) User-Driven Innovation: the World’s first Business Computer: Review, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol.7, pp 74-75.

Brindley, H. (2008) On being employed by a computing pioneer – Leo Fantl, an account of the author’s experience working in South Africa for LEO, slapHappe, https://slapphappe.wordpress.com/2008/06/30/on-being-employed-by-a-computing-pioneer-leo-fantl/

Bringslid, M. M. (2016) 7 Ways Computers will change our lives, Blog on Eric Scmidt Presentation , LSE 14th October, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/studentsatlse/2016/10/18/7-ways-computers-will-change-our-lives/

Briscoe, G. (1994) The First Business Computer, Review of Peter Bird’s book in Management Services, February, p. 35.

Briscoe, G. (1994) Computing was a piece of cake, The British Journal of Administrative Management, February/March, p 23 and 27.

Briscoe, G. (2016) 1950s Computer Training Package, Resurrection, Issue Number 73, pp25-33.

Briscoe, G. (1967-2000) Graham Briscoe Productivity Collection Pamphlets, a collection of texts and http://www.open.ac.uk/libraryservices/documents/Graham_Briscoe_Productivity_Collection_pamphlets.pdf

Briscoe, G, (2019), LEO and the Managers: Unearthing its ownership, an account of the research carried out by Graham Briscoe to discover the copyright holder for the John Simmons book LEO and the Manager and the successful transfer of publication rights to the LEO Computers Society. Resurrection, Issue Number 85, Spring 2019, pp. 25-26. The LEO archive in Dropbox includes three documents including a letter from Stuart MacNab, Director J. & Co. dated 28th January 2019, addressed to Peter Byford chair of LEO Computers Society , confirming the transfer of intellectual property rights of documents relating to LEO I to LEO Computers Society. https://www.dropbox.com/s/9e2er7hfs4d2a6u/Graham%20Briscoe%20re%20Lyons%20System.docx?dl=0 and https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf LEO Matters, Vol. 5, Spring 2019. pp. 8 – 9,

Bryant, A., Land, F.F., (2018), A Conversation between Frank Land and Antony Bryant, paper submitted to JAIS, 41 pages. https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/Anthony%20Bryant%20conversation%20submitted%20to%20JAIS.docx?role=personal

Byford, P., (2018), New heritage partnership to unlock important IT archive, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 58, Winter 2018, pp.25-26

Byford, P., (2019), Chairman’s Review: October 2017 – March 2019, report sent to all members of LEO Computer Society, www.leo-computers.org.uk

Caminer, D.T. (1956) Experience of a General Purpose Computer, in The Electronic Office, a bound collection of articles assembled by the Office Management Association following their conference in April 1956. Bound volume held by Hilary Caminer.

Caminer, D.T. (1955) The Application of Electronic Digital Computers and Calculators to Accountancy, Costing and Managerial Control, Lecture to Northampton College of Advanced Technology (now City University, London). Lecture Notes held by Hilary Caminer. Also see https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=history-of-computing-uk;ca4a4c3.0012

Caminer, D.T. (1958) ‘….And How to Avoid Them’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 1, No 1, pp. 11-14.

Caminer, D.T. (1997) ‘LEO and its Applications: the Beginning of Business Computing’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 40, No 10,
pp. 585-597.miner

Caminer, D.T. (2000) Back to Basics, interview in Institute for the Management of Information Systems Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 1. Copy held by Hilary Caminer.

Caminer, D.T. (2002) ‘LEO and the Computer Revolution’, 2nd annual Pinkerton Lecture, IEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 13.

Caminer, D.T., (1997), The Story of an Innovation, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 7 – 154.

Caminer, D.T. (2003) ‘Behind The Curtain at LEO’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 3-13, April-June.

Caminer, Hilary, (2016). Editor, LEO Remembered, essays and reminiscences by LEO people compiled to Hilary Caminer. honour the role played by Peter Bird in bringing public attention to the history of LEO and of the Lyons Food Empire, Published by LEO Computers Society, 108 pages. Available from Hilary Caminer. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/LeoBookWeb.pdf

Caminer, Hilary (2016) editor, Unveiling the plaque, November 29th 2016, edited version of presentation at the unveiling of the plaque commemorating 65 years of business computing at Lyons Walk, including presentations from Peter Byford, Frank Land, Dame Stephanie Shirley and Tony Morgan, https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=Unveiling+of+Plaque+aa+presentations.doc

Caminer, H., (Editor), Behr, B., (Production), (2018), Newsletter and Review, Leo Computers Society Vol. 4, Spring 2018, pp. 1-22, http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/LeoNewsletterSpring2018.pdf
The issue includes articles by Peter Byford, John Daines, Frank Land, Lisa McGerty, Elisabetta Mori, Phillip Bird, Mike Storey, Tony Morgan, Stan Holwill, Bill Forfar, WEJ Parry, Tony Davies, Bob Stevenson.  The issue can be read or downloaded from the LEO Computers Website at http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/

Campbell-Kelly, M., (1995), ICL and the evolution of the British Main Frame, Computer Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp 400-412.

Cane, A. (2008) Teashop boffin who pioneered business computing, Financial Times, 28th June, https://www.ft.com/content/3c7bdcf0-4475-11dd-b151-0000779fd2ac

Cane, A. (2011) Perspectives: Unlearnt lessons of Leo; British pioneers wrote the script on project management in the 1950s, but no one was listening, Financial Times, 6th December, https://www.ft.com/content/7c7fc396-168d-11e1-be1d-00144feabdc0

Cann, R., (1997), The Royal Dockyards, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 24, pp. 274 – 286.

Casey, F. (1954) Lyons Electronic Office: How LEO Works, in Business: The Journal of Management in Industry, April.

Ceruzzi, P.E. (1996) LEO: The First Business Computer, Review, ACM Computing Reviews, February, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=119311&listname=search Note: this review was rated the best review in Computing Reviews for 1996.

Clarke, Gavin (2013) The Big Battle with Blue, The Register, March. A useful sketch
of LEO history based on author's reading and interviews with Frank and Ralph Land.

Clarke Gavin (2014) How Brit computer maker beat IBM's S/360 - and Soviet spies, The Register, April, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/04/09/how_english_electric_outsold_ibm_s360_cold_war/ The story of ICL and LEO success in selling computers in East Europe.

Clarke Gavin, (2013) Blighty's revolutionary Cold War teashop computer - and Nigella Lawson,
The Register, November, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/03/27/geeks_guide_leo/

Cochrane, A. (2017), LEO Operating Memories, an account of working as an operator on the Stewarts and Lloyds LEO II/3. Copy available from Frank Land and Dropbox.

Computer History Museum, From Cambridge to Café, The LEO story including brief bibliography, http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110

Coombs, M. (2003) Review: ‘A Computer called LEO’ (Ferry, G.), European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 12, Issue 4, 241–24.

Cooper, A., (2018), A Virtual LEO III. The story of LOLA the consortium of London local authorities who replaced their LEO III with an IBM 360/50 and for whom IBM produced a LEO III emulator to enable them to run legacy systems. LEO Matters, Vol. 5, Spring 2019, pp. 9– 10, Newsletter of the LEO Computers Society, https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Cooper, G. (2016) How Lyons Produced the World’s First Large Business Computer, Power Point Presentation to IET retired branch, https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Copied%20from%20old%20Leo%20interviews%20shared%20folder?preview=Cooper+IET+Lecture+2016.ppt

Cotterell, S. (2002) The day LEO roared, Project Manager Today, pp. 4-6, February.

Cummings, J.G., (2012), The Great Railway Caper: Big Data, O’Reilly Strata Conference October 2012 on Big Data. The paper gives an account of the LEO railway distancing job. http://blog.jgc.org/2012/10/the-great-railway-caper-big-data-in-1955.html

Daines, J. (2017) The LEO Computers Society Heritage Project, presentation at October 2017 LEO Computers Society Reunion at HAC London. Copies can be obtained from John Daines and Frank Land.

Daines, J. (2017) LEO, Lyons Electronic Office: The World’s first Business Computer, presentation at Cambridge Centre for Computing History November 2017. Copies can be obtained from John Daines and Frank Land.

Daines, J., (2019), collector. LEO III Training Course, including examples of CLEO, INTERCODE and LEO II coding. Held on loan at Cambridge Centre for Computer Research and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/s/2zooadee7pyxa4r/LEO%20III%20Training%20Course%20Coding%20Example.pdf?dl=0

Daziel, Billy (2015) Corby & The Electronic Brain: LEO II, pamphlet describing exhibition at the Corby Heritage Centre July/August, in memory of the Stewarts and Lloyds’ LEO II computer, the first LEO II delivered to a commercial customer, https://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Corby%20%26%20The%20Electronic%20Brain%20exhibition.pdf

Delve, J., Anderson, D. (2001) The Pinkerton Lecture, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Vol. 23, Issue2, pp.68-73.

Douce, C. (2017) Academic Blog, report and Reflections on IT History meetings attended by author, an OU academic. Includes references to LEO, but of more general interest. https://learn1.open.ac.uk/mod/oublog/view.php?user=42396&tag=history

Duffy, J. (undated) LEO I: The construction of the world's first Business Computer, Tripod Website, http://james.duffy.tripod.com/Leo1.html. A good account of the LEO story with many photographs.

Eadie, N., (1997), The General Post Office, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 21, pp. 249 – 256.

Enticknap, N. (1977) The First Business Computer, Computer Management, pp. 10-15, June.

Espiner, T. (2011) ZD Net. LEO Computers marks 60th anniversary, http://www.zdnet.com/pictures/leo-computer-marks-60th-anniversary/

Evans, C. (1983) Conversation: J.M.M. Pinkerton, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing,
Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 64-72.

Fantl, L. (1956?) Application of Digital Computers to Chrystallography, Lecture to Northampton College of Advanced Technology (now City University, London). Lecture Notes held by Hilary Caminer.

Fantl, L., (1997), The Early Days, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, chapter 14, pp.157 – 167.

Fantl, L, (1997), Into South Africa, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 25, pp. 289 – 305.

Ferry, G., (1969), A look back at LEO, Computer Weekly. https://www.computerweekly.com/feature/A-look-back-at-Leo

Ferry, G. (2005) Simmons, John Richardson Mainwaring (1902–1985), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/97801986 14128.

Ferry, G. (2015) Pioneer of Business Systems “Father of Office Computing, Old Brightonians, Brighton College, http://www.oldbrightonians.com/notable-obs/business/john-simmons-bc.-1916.html

Ferry, G. (2012) David Tresman Caminer (1915-2008), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,

Forbes, J.M. (1965) ‘An Introduction to Compiler Writing’, The Computer
Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 98-102.

Fox, M.L. (2015) How technology can improve the UK, presentation at WiredWorld2015, annual conference of Wired World October 15/16th 2015, London. Printed in Observer Newspaper 18th October 2015, main section pages 32.33 See http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/18/martha-lane-fox-technology-women-computing

Furey, C. (1975), LEO III: a rave from grave, Computing, September 4th 1975, an article noting the retirement of the London Boroughs LEO III from Greenwich and lamenting the failure of any British Museum to take an interest in the machine. The lament is reinforced by the edition editorial “A Maker from History”

Galliers, R. (ed.) (2003) Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 12, No. 4, December. The Issue is devoted to the 2001 conference at the London Guildhall celebrating the 50th anniversary of the rolling out of the world’s first business application at the Cadby Hall headquarters of J Lyons and Company on their LEO I computer. URL http://www.citeulike.org/journal/els-09638687

The contents of the issue are as follows:

Aris, J.B.B., Preface, pp 253-254

Baskerville, R., The LEO principle: perspectives on 50 years of business computing, pp 255-263

Cox, G., Business computing 2001-the state of the art, pp 285-294

Mowery, D., 50 Years of business computing: LEO to Linux, pp 295-308

Yapp, C., Conference sponsors' panel: what have we learnt in 50 years? pp 309-320

Shirley, S., Panel: social and economic consequences of business computing and public policy,

pp 321-330

Ashworth, J.M., Knowledge and digital information, pp 331-337

Hudson, R., Panel: crystal ball, 2001-2051, pp 339-353

Ein-Dor, P., The world and business computing in 2051: from LEO to RUR? pp 357-371

Amaravadi, C.S., The world and business computing in 2051, pp 373-386

Schell, E.H., The world and business computing at mid-century, pp 387-395

Gibson, A. (1991) IAM – seventy five innovative years, a short history of the IAM, 1915-1990, Modern Records Centre Warwick University, MSS.337/4/66/1.

Gibson, A. (1995) The next five years, additional material to celebrate 80 years of the IAM, Modern Records Centre, Warwick University, MSS, 337/4/ 66/2.

Gibson, A., (1991), British Journal of Administrative Management (1991), 75th Anniversary Issue: Copy held as manuscript text at John Rylands Library, Manchester University in box GB 133 NAHC/LEO/A6 http://archives.li.man.ac.uk/ead/html/gb133nahc-leo-p1.shtml
The contents include:
Simmons, the visionary, April 1991. O&M and Simmons, November 1991. The contents of the collection can be viewed by application to the librarian.

Gibson, R.P. and Lenaerts, E.H. (1960) Maintenance Procedures on a Computer, proceedings
of joint
BCS/IEE Conference, January. The paper reflects both LEO I and LEO II experience.

Glass, R. (200T of the ACM, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp 25-26. The paper refers to the first LEO applications.

Gluckstein, I. M. (1959) G.W. Booth, Obituary, Lyons Mail, October.

Godwin, C. (1986) Landmarks: How the king of the jungle grew up on tea and cakes,
Computing, April 23rd.

Gosden, J.A. (1960) ‘Market Research Applications on LEO’, The Computer Journal,
British Computer Society, Vol. 3, No 3, pp. 142-143.

Gosden, J.A. (1964) “The Operations Control Center Multi-Computer Operating System.”
Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery,
E2.2-1-E2.2-9. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Gosden, J.A., (1997), Toward System Software, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 16, pp. 185 – 206.

Graham-Cumming, J. (2012) The Great Railway Caper: Big Data in 1955, presented at Strata Conference, London, October 2nd.

Greening-Jackson, T. (2008) LEO I and the BR. Job, including transcript of interview with Roger Coleman, programmer in charge of railway distancing job, https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=%E2%80%A2%09Greening-Jackson,+T.+(2008)+LEO+I+and+the+BR.+Job&rls=com.microsoft:en-GB:IE-Address&dcr=0&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0yZHO5c3YAhWFGOwKHQhsDzoQsAQINA&biw=1600&bih=675#imgrc=vj9Ru_saGx8OgM:&spf=1515600989252

Haigh, T. (2007) Chris Date: Oral History, Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley, California Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol41/iss1/15

Harvey, F. (2001) The lion that failed to roar, LEO, Financial Times, August 20th.

Hassan, Nik R. (2017) "Editorial: The History and Philosophy Department," Communications of the Association for Information Systems:
Vol. 41 , Article 15. Available at:

Hayes, J., (2018), Reconstructions of early electronic computers are giving us new insights into how they worked and the software that ran on them, E&T Magazine. An account of the various efforts to reconstruct early computers including a brief history of the role played by LEO in early business computing. https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2018/04/reconstructing-the-early-electronic-computers/?utm_source=Adestra&utm_campaign=New%20EandT%20News%20-%20Automation%20FINAL%20-%20MEMBER&utm_medium=Newsletters%20-%20E%26T%20News&utm_content=E%26T%20News%20-%20Members&utm_term=https%3A%2F%2Feandt.theiet.org%2Fcontent%2Farticles%2F2018%2F04%2Freconstructing-the-early-electronic-computers%2F

Hendry, J. (1986) The Teashop Computer Manufacturer, Business History,
Vol. 29, No 8.

Henin, S. (2003) LEO: II computer in una tazza da tè, La Altra Scienza, p. 102.

Herbert, A,. (2019), Grantchester, Resurrection, Issue Number 85, Spring 2019, pp. 21-24. An account of the making of the ITV series Grantchester shown on 225th January, 2019, featuring the fictional computer ‘UNIAC’ based on the real EDSAC, and inter alia, noting that UNIAC included working for a teashop business.

Hermon, P.M., (1997), A Reminiscence, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 17, PP. 207 – 220.

Hicks, M., (2019), What makes a history hidden, blog by author of Programmed Inequality, tracing an advertisement featuring LEO computer operator Cathy Gillespie dating back to 1965. https://mitpress.mit.edu/blog/what-makes-history-hidden

Holdsworth, D. (2015) A LEO III: 21st Century Hindsight, Resurrection Issue 70, pp. 21- 30,

Holdsworth, D. (2015) LEO III Software Rescue, Resurrection, Issue 71, David notes “All of a sudden, it works”, pp.8-9.
http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res71.htm The software can be accessed at http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoCode/LeoIIIdemo2.zip

Holdsworth, D. et al (2017) On-line Leo III User Manuals, http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoMan/Manuals.htm

Holdsworth, D. (2015) History of the Leo III Software Preservation Project: Blow by Blow Account, http://sw.cc5 - 13s.bcs.org/leo/BlowByBlow.htm, Draft Account.

Hudson, R.L. (2001) David Caminer analyses what went wrong with one of the world’s first computers, the LEO, Convergence, the Wall Street Journal’s magazine of Digital Business, Vol VII, No 3.

I Programmer (2010) LEO – Lyons Electronic Office: World’s first business machine – a short but comprehensive account of the LEO story, http://www.i-programmer.info/history/machines/670-leo-lyons-electonic-office.html

1984 (Siemens – Data Processing, the history of the domain of Data Processing from 1954 to 1984), Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Munich. The paper, in German, refers to the role played by LEO.

Jackson, M.J., (1966), A Computer in the Mail Order Business, Data Processing, September-October, pp. 1-9.

Jackson, M.J., (1970), Freemans (London, SW9), paper presented at Computer for Profit Conference, 6 pages, sponsored by British Institute of Management, Confederation of British Industries and ICL, at Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, January 22nd 1970

Jackson, M,J., (1997), Freemans Mail Order, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 23, pp, 274 -286.

Johnson, H.J.W. (2016) LEO I – Recreating the Word’s First Business Computer, Middlesex University Mauritius Campus, Business Information Studies, Information Studies, Dropbox archive: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project – links to Dropbox ‘LEO Oral History project’, not to this specific item.

Kaye, E.J. and Gibbs G.R. (1954) ‘LEO – A Checking Device for Punched Paper Tape’,
Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 386-392.
Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp 18-24 http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/outriders/2011/11/leo_making_history.shtml

Kemp, K. (2014) Early Commercial Computing, Bristol Industrial Archaeological Society Journal (BAIS), No. 47, pages 21-33.

Lamming, N. (2017) LEO in OZ, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 53, Winter, pp 25-27.

Lamming, N., (2018), Peter Gyngell: Obituary, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 58, Winter. pp. 25-26, LEO Computers Dropbox archive at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/PETER%20GYNGELL%20Obituary.doc?role=personal

Lamming, N., (2019), Two Faces of Note, in ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 61, Summer 2019, pp 16-17, a sketch of the contribution made to the story of LEO by David Caminer and John Pinkerton.

Lamming, N., (2019), History of LEO in Australia, https://www.dropbox.com/s/nr1ytjmd6rjmpli/LEO%20in%20Australia%20by%20Neil%20Lamming.doc?dl=0

Land, F.F. (1960) ‘Computers in Purchasing and Stores Departments: LEO at the Ford Motor Company Spares Depot’, Computers in Purchasing and Stores Departments, Purchasing Officers Association, pp 27 – 33.

Land, F.F. (1994) `LEO, A personal memoir', in INGENUITY, the ICL Technical Journal, Vol 9, No. 2, pp. 355 – 361, https://www.fujitsu.com/uk/Images/ICL-Technical-Journal-v09i02.pdf

Land, F.F. (1996) Information Revolution, in Malcolm Warner (ed.), International Encyclopaedia of published in LSE Working Paper Series, Number 95. http://www.worldcat.org/title/informationrevolution/oclc/500306458&referer=brief_results

Land, F.F. (1996) ‘Systems Analysis for Business Applications’, Resurrection, Journal of the Computer Conservation Society, Summer.

Land, F.F. (1997) ‘Information Technology Implementation: The Case of the World’s First Business Computer: The Initiation Phase’, in McMaster, T., Mumford, E., Swanson, E.B., Warboys, B., and Wastell, D. (eds.) Facilitating Technology Transfer through Partnership: Learning from Practice and Research, pp. 3-19, Chapman & Hall: London.

Land, F.F., (1997), The Widening Field. in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 15, pp. 168 -184.

Land, F.F. (1998) ‘LEO, The First Business Computer: A Personal Experience’, in Glass, R.L. (ed.), In the Beginning. Personal Recollections of Software Pioneers, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA.

Land, F.F. (1998) The Fist Business Computer: A case Study in User Driven Innovation, Proceedings of Conference Computers in Europe, Past Present and Future, Kyiv, pp. 108 -120, October.

Land, F.F. (1999) A Historical Analysis of Implementing IS at J. Lyons, in Currie, W.L. and Galliers, R.D. (eds.) Rethinking Management Information Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 310 - 325.

Land, F.F. (2000) ‘The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 16-26.

Land, F.F. (2003) A Computer Called LEO: Review: ACM Computing Reviews, June 24th, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=127849&listname=search - link takes to the login page only – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Land, F.F. (2009) Appreciation of Professor Colin http://dssresources.com/reflections/land/land03162008.html Tully (1936 – 2007): Professor of Software Practice, Middlesex University, British Computer Society, Vol. 52, Issue 3, May, pp. 388 – 391.

Land, F.F., (2010), The use of history in IS research: an opportunity missed?, Journal of Information Technology, Vol 25, pp. 365 – 394 Reprinted 2016 in Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 1, pp 213-234, editors Wilcocks, L., Lacity, M., Sauer, C., Springer International Publishers. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-29266-3_9

Land, F.F. (2012) Remembering LEO, pp. 22-42 in Tatnall, A. (ed.) Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technologies, Springer.

Land, F.F. (2013) The story of LEO the World’s First Business Computer, in Developing LEO:
The world's first business computer, Warwick University Library Modern Records Centre,
Simmons Archive, https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/explorefurther/digital/leo/story/
Reprinted in The Software Practitioner, Vol 24, no.4, July 2014, p.5.

.Land, F.F. (2015) Early History of the Information Systems Discipline in the UK: An account based on living through the period, Communications of the Association for Information Systems: Vol. 36, Article 26. The article includes a short Appendix recounting the LEO story.

Land, F.F. (2017) Teleprocessing and LEO, Letter to Editor, Resurrection, Vol. 88, http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res78.htm

Land, F.F. (2017) Review: Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost its Edge in Computing, ACM Computing Reviews, June 27th, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/review_review.cfm?review_id=145394  - link takes to the login page only – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Land, F.F. (2017) Peter Bird Obituary, Other Lives, Guardian Newspaper website, 10th September, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/10/peter-bird-obituary

Land, R.R., (1997), Lyons Teashops, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 18, pp223 – 228.

Land, R.R., (1979), Behind the Iron Curtain, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 26, pp. 306 -320.

Land, R.R., (2018), Mysterious Death of Dennis Skinner, commentary on report of death of LEO Moscow Office Manager. Commentary held by Frank Land and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=Dennis+Skinner+mysterious+death.docx. Also see Monica Porter below.

Land, R.R. (2016) LEO in East Europe, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 38, Article 34, http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/34

Lawson, Dominic (2016) 65 years ago the age of the computer began …. to sell a better tea cake, Sunday Times, 4th December, pg. 24, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/comment/65-years-ago-the-age-of-the-computer-began-to-sell-a-better-tea-cake-zzpPx63qx6

Laver, M., (1956-1958), Electronic Computers in the Office, PO Telecomms Journal, Vol. 9,10. Laver’s introduction to computers and what they might be used for. Including photos of a LEO III installation.

Laver, M., (1997), The General post Office, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 22, pp. 257 – 260.

Lavington, S.H. (1980) ‘LEO and English Electric’ in Early British Computers: The story of vintage Computers and the people who built them, Chapter 13, pp. 68 – 77, London: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Lavington, S.H. (2015) A Brief History of Early British Computers, ETHW, A Brief History of Early British Computers, http://ethw.org/A_Brief_History_of_Early_British_Computers

Lean, T. (2010) Mary Coombs: Oral History, National Life Stories: An Oral History of British Science, Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0016XX-0000A0.pdf

Lean, T. (2010) Frank Land: Oral History, National Life Stories: An Oral History of British Science, Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0017XX-0000A0.pdf

Lee, J. (ed.) (1998) Biographies, John Maurice McClean Pinkerton, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 69 – 71.

Lenaerts, E.H. (1950-1967) Note Books, a set of 48 manuscript diaries covering the work of LEO engineer Ernest Lenaerts from LEO I to LEO III. www.billp.org/LEO See also https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ernest+Lenaerts+and+his+diaries.doc&qsid=43582110631250927522239151161552&query=ernest+diaries&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Lenaerts, E.H. (1951) Visual Presentation of Binary Numbers, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 23, pp. 140-141.

Lenaerts, E.H. (1954) ‘LEO - Operations and Maintenance’, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 335-341. Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp. 11-17.

Lenaerts, E.H., (1955), Automatic Square-Rooting on a Computer, Electronic Engineering, July 1955

Lenaerts, E.H., (1966), Study of Static Charge on Paper Tape, Journal of Science Institute, June 1966

Lenaerts, E.H., (1967), Acoustic Noise in the Computer Room, for GPO, November 1967

Lenaerts, E.H., (1969), Talking to the Computer, New Scientist, December 1969

Lewis, J.W. (1963) ‘Time Sharing on LEO III’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 24-28.

Lewis, J.W. (1964) ‘The Management of a Large Commercial Computer Bureau’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 255-261.

Lewis, J.W., (1997), Glyn Mills Bank and Army and Air Force Officers Payroll, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, chapter 19, pp. 229 – 242.

Lyons, N. (2015) LEO: The Lyons Electronic Office. The story of the First Business Computer, Journal of the Royal Signals Institution, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 32-37. An abridged version was published in Kai Kai Baluch Journal September 17th 2017, pp. 29-32.

Lyons, N. (2016) LEO, the First Business Computer, Resurrection, No. 75, Autumn, pp. 19 - 30 http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res75.htm#top

Lyons, N. (2017) Correspondence, Research, Talks (including scripts), London Metropolitan Archives, City of London: Accession reference: B16/078, 2007-2016. The material includes history of J Lyons and Company Limited and its achievements (presentations includes images mainly sourced from Peter Bird, historian) and media interview recordings.

Lyons, N. (2018), The Joe Lyons Story –Food for Thought, Computer Conservation Society, talk presented at meeting of CCS in May 2017 tells the story of the company which produced the World’s First “electronic office”. Available at You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrwGDC8Bdow

Margolis, J, (2018) Review: ‘Electronic Dreams’ by Tom Lean, Financial Times, March 12th, 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/e1afa168-ef79-11e5-9f20-c3a047354386 ,

Another remarkable fact from Electronic Dreams: which UK company would you imagine was, by 1951, the world’s first to use a computer for business, and started making computers for other companies? It was J. Lyons and Co, the teashop chain. Its computer business, LEO, kept going until 1963. Lyons’ role as a computer manufacturing pioneer is the more astonishing — at least to anyone old enough to remember the ostensibly low-tech J. Lyons cafés — in that there was stiff competition from within the UK; companies such as Ferranti, Elliott Brothers, English Electric and British Tabulating Machinery were all selling British boffin-made computers globally.”

Martin, D. (2008) David Caminer, a Pioneer of Computing Dies at 92, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/technology/29caminer.html

Mason, R.O. (2004) ‘The Legacy of LEO: Lessons learned from an English Tea and Cakes Company: Pioneering efforts in Information Systems’, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 5, No. 5, May, pp. 183 – 219.

Mason, R. O. (2009) AIS, LEO and the Pursuit of Good Work, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 25, Article 37, pp. 452 – 464.

May, J. (2012) Review of a Computer Called LEO, Amazon Reviews, http://www.amazon.co.uk/review/R3MSJ7IMMOLZRU/ref=cm_cr_pr_viewpnt#R3MSJ7IMMOLZRU

McGerty, L., (2019), Update on the HLF Project, in LEO Matters, Vol. 5, page 7, Spring 2019, https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Merriman, J.H.H., Caminer, D.T., and others, (1957) A Discussion on the Use of Electronic Processing Equipment, Journal of Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 120, No.3, pp. 291-307. Proof copy held by Hilary Caminer.

Microservios, (2011) LEO 1, el primer ordenador comercial de la historia, cumple 60 años, a Spanish version of the 60th LEO anniversary including the video of the event at the London Science Museum.

Mills, G., (1937), Clerical Research Paper presented to OMA Conference and refers to his work for
J. Lyons in its systematic approach to improving efficiency.

Mills., G. (1938), follow up to above given to Conference in Canada

Morgan, A. B. (Tony), (2007), Report on visit of inspection to LEO III/ in Edinburgh Museum, see Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/s/hncodrv7krf2zi6/LEO%20III-33%20by%20Tony%20Morgan.doc?dl=0

Morgan, A. B. (Tony),, Commissioning LEOs — a Memoir, Newsletter and Review ISSUE Spring 2018,Vol. 4, section 9, page 12, editor Hilary Caminer, layout, Bernaqrd Behr.

Morgan, A. B. (Tony), LEO Lives: LEO DME, Another story……, in LEO Matters, Newsletter of LEO Computers Society, editor Vince Bodsworth, Vol.5, Spring 2019, pp. 10 – 12, https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Mori, E. (2016) LEO Plaque Unveiling in London, Blog http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/leo-plaque-unveiling-in-london/

Mori, E. (2017) Coping with the “American giants": mergers, relationships and attempted partnerships in the European computer industry in the early sixties, Paper presented at 2017 4th Conference on the History and Philosophy Conference, Brno, SS

Mori. E. (2017) “Validity & Correctness before the OS: the case of LEO I and LEO II” presentation at Alan Turing Institute, October 2017, London and at the CNAM – Conservatoire national des arts et métie http://meetings.sigcis.org/conference-schedule.htmlhttp://meetings.sigcis.org/conference-schedule.htmlrs, on the 20th of October 2017, Paris. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/history-and-philosophy-of-programming-meeting-tickets-37255156175?

Mori, E., Primiero, G. and Arif, R. (2019) “Validity & Correctness before the OS: the case of LEO I and LEO II”, in De Mol, L. and Primiero, G. (eds.), Reflections on Programming Systems – Historical and Philosophical Aspects, pp. 15-47, Philosophical Studies Series, Springer

Mori, E., (2018). From Academia to Business: the case of EDSAC and LEO, Stored in Memory. The 10th Annual SIGCIS Conference St. Louis, Missouri, USA, October 14, 2018

Mori, E. (2018), LEO, Olivetti e i primi computercommerciali in Europa:un'occasione perduta? In Mondo Digitale n. 78, October. http://mondodigitale.aicanet.net/20185/Articoli/02_MD78_Mori_LEO_Olivetti_e_i_primi_computer.pdf

Murgia, M. (2016) End of Moore’s Law? What’s next might be more exciting, Daily Telegraph, 26th February. The article has photo of LEO to indicate size of early computers, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/02/25/end-of-moores-law-whats-next-could-be-more-exciting/

Niewlsdomski, S. (2016) British transistor manufacturers in the 1950s, British Vintage Wireless Society Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 10-22. The paper includes a section on LEO III, and displays a job advert dated 1957 for Computer Engineers from LEO Computers Limited. It may be referenced and read but not copied. See http://www.bvws.org.uk/publications/bulletins.php/volume41number4

Page, C.A. (2010) LEO Computer Reunion 2010, Anna C Page’s Blog, WorldPress.com weblog. An account of the 2010 reunion by the daughter of a LEO programmer, including photos of LEO artefacts. https://annacpage.wordpress.com/2010/04/18/leo-computer-re 60, Springunion-2010/

Pearson, I. (ed.) (2017) ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 50, Autumn. The newsletter of ICL Australian veterans includes a number of references to the history of LEO. Pages14 and 15 refer to the collaboration between John Pinkerton and Conway Berners-Lee, ex Ferranti.

Pearson, I., (ed) (2019), ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 61, Summer, the Newsletter of ICL Australian veterans, includes a number of references with a LEO theme: Report on Heritage Lottery Fund to LEO Computers Society and CCCH, page 4-5; an article entitled ‘Two Faces of note’ by Neil Lamming providing a sketch of the roles played by David Caminer and John Pinkerton in the LEO story, pages 16-17; and a personal history of David Llewellyn Jones, who joined LEO in Australia in 1964, page18.

Pearson, I., (ed) (2019), ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 62, Autumn, the Newlsetter of ICL Australian veterans, includes a number of references and photographs with a LEO theme, including on pages 6 – 9 a report on the visits to Australia of Peter Byford and Hilary Caminer in the very hot summer of 2019, and includes a photo on page 27 of the Shell Data Centre LEO III with Alan Sercombe, Peter Gyngell, Wallace Weaving and Gary Driver.

Pelling, N. (2002) The Case For The First Business Computer, http://www.nickpelling.com/Leo1.html The business cases behind the five proposals made to the board of J. Lyons & Co. by Thompson and Standingford in 1947 - which led to the construction of the first business computer - are analysed, but found to be strategically lacking. Both an alternate reading of the case and some contemporary implications are then developed.

Pinkerton, J.M.M., (1949), Use of EDSAC on the Wages Problem, manuscript typescript of a paper prepared by John Pinkerton with the help of Derek Hemy one month after John joined Lyons. The paper attempts to provide an analysis of how long it would take to prepare a payslip under various assumptions about input/facilities. A copy of the transcribed document is held in Dropbox in Word and PDP format.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1951) Automatic Frequency Control, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 23., pp. 147-148.

Pinkerton, J.M.M., (1951), A Short Description of the EDSAC Type Calculator Circuits used in LEO, Copy No 1' of a 63 page report on the LEO computer for J Lyons & Company Ltd. including text and ‘small block schematic diagrams’ for submission to the Patent Office. The report has the handwritten and stamped mark ‘88147 Presented 27 July 1951’ as well as being stamped ‘Patent Office Library, 27 July 1951’. Listed in the report and included with it are 65 larger diagrams all stamped ‘Patent Office Library, 27 July 1951’. BL Explore Archives and Manuscripts catalogue. The catalogue number is Add MS 89294 http://searcharchives.bl.uk/IAMS_VU2:IAMS032-003391654

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1952) Patent Application: GB000000767192A 29.05.1952 30.01.1957 JOHN MAURICE MCLEAN PINKERTON; LYONS & CO LTD J
Improvements in and relating to data transfer apparatus. Complete Specification published January 1957. See

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1954) Operating and Engineering Experience Gained with LEO, in Automatic Digital Computing, Proceedings of a Symposium held at National Physical Laboratory, March 1953, pp. 21-30, published by HMSO, http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/pdfs/Automatic_Digital_Computation_Symposium_Mar53_text.pdf

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1954) ‘The LEO System’, Electronic Engineering.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. and Kaye, E.J. (1954) LEO: History and Technical Description, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 284-291. Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp. 3-10.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1959) Features of the LEO IIC Computer, Automatic Data Processing, December.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1961) ‘The Evolution of Design in a Series of Computers’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 42-46.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1966) ‘Large-Scale Computing in the Seventies’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, September.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1975) ‘Performance Problems with LEO I’, The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 411-414, August.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1983) Tape 6 in Christopher Evans’s ‘Pioneers of Computing’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 5, No 1, pp. 64-72, January-March.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1987/88) ‘The Early History of LEO: The First Data Processing Computer’, The Computer Museum Report, Vol. 21, Winter, https://archive.org/stream/computermuswin198788comp/computermuswin198788comp_djvu.txt

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1988) ORAL History – self interview, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 54 pages,

Pinkerton, J.M.M (1991) Taming LEO – Overcoming the Inherent Unreliability of LEO I, IEE Review, Vol. 37, pp. 13-17.

Pinkerton, J.M.M., Hemy, D., Lenaerts, E.H., (1992), The Influence of the Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory on the LEO Project, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 41-48.

Pinkerton, J.M.M, (1997), 'Evolution of Constructional Methods from Radios to Computers'. This is a 25 page illustrated booklet containing a reprint of a talk by John Pinkerton 'read at a joint meeting with the Computer Conservation Society at the Science Museum on 8 -9 April, including references to and photos of LEO. Published in Transactions of the Newcomen Society for the study of Engineering and Technology, Volume 68, 1996-9 

Pollock, N.C. (1955) Electronic Computers and their possible applications, Report to the Board, Stewart and Lloyds, Document stored at the National Museum of Computing, Bletchley. Thanks to Corby Borough Collection for making the Report available. See http://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Electronic%20Computers.pdf

Porter, Monica, (1979). Mysterious Death of Dennis Skinner, Coffee Break: 2, 15 Years Ago. Report of death of manager of LEO Moscow Office in 1964. Copy of report held by Frank Land. Donated by Frank Skinner (no relation). See also blog by Ralph Land with more information, held by Frank Land and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=Dennis+Skinner+mysterious+death.docx.

Quest, M. (1962) Living with Computers, The Journal of the Hotel and Catering Institute, Vol. 9, No. 4. The article recounts the LEO story and includes an interview with Ralph Land about computers and the hotel business.

Randall, G.A. (1959) The Potentialities of a Computer in the Smaller Office, The Accountant, September 19th.

Reynolds, C. (1990) CODIL: The Architecture of an Information Language, The Computer Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 155-163. Note: CODIL was a LEO project.

Reynolds, C. (2015) Algorithms aren't everything, IT NOW, September, pp. 60-61.

Richardson, D.J. (1974) LEO Computers, a draft account based on interviews with Anthony Salmon, John Simmons and John Stevens, NAHC/LEO, A7 see http://archives.li.man.ac.uk/ead/html/gb133nahc-leo-p1.shtml

Rooney, B. (2011) World’s First Business Computer Celebrates 60th Anniversary, Wall Street Journal. Available at: http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/11/14/worlds-first-business-computer-celebrates-60th-anniversary

Runciman, B. (ed.) (2017) The Second Part of our Celebration of 60 years of BCS and the Member Magazine – 1987 – 2016, IT Now, Autumn, entry for year 2001, notes 50th anniversary of first LEO job with picture of John Pinkerton and picture of W.D.& H.O. Wills LEO II installation.

Sabbagh, D. (1999) When Lyons roared, Computing, September 30th.

Salmon, Sam, Chairman, (1965), J. Lyons & Co: Annual General Meeting Report, The Times Newspaper, Chairman’s report notes sale of all of the Lyons LEO Computers shares to English Electric and formation of English Electric LEO Marconi, June 14th

Samways, D. (2016) Marconi in Computers and Automation, held in Marconi Wiki, see https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1-eYS5yA1W4avTeW05NxnfDnt6Uq-xr-u7OAR0RXLpj4/viewform to access the Wiki. Included is a history referencing the LEO connection. Held in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=marconiincomputersandautomation+%5Blicensed+for+non-commercial+use+only%5D+-+Marconi+in+Computers+and+Automation.mht

Sant, W., (2015), The Early Days of Customs & Excise Computing, LEO Computers Society, editor Bernard Behr, Newsletter and Review, Summer 2015, Vol. 2, pp. 16-17. Apply to Frank Land or Bernard Behr for copy if required.

Saran, C. (2016) The heyday of computing: How the Brits ruled IT, Celebrating 50 years of British Technology Innovation, Computer Weekly, April 5-11, pp. 23-29. http://www.bitpipe.com/fulfillment/1459781780_511

Schmidt, E. (2016) From LEO to Deep Mind: Britain’s computing pioneers, presentation at the London School of Economics on 14th October 2016. The presentation took the form of a conversation between the speaker, the Executive Chair of Alphabet, the Google parent company, and Professor Chrisanthi Avgerou of the LSE and the audience. The presentation can be heard on the LSE podcast at http://www.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3612 The event was jointly sponsored by LSE’s Department of Management and the LEO Computers Society. It was intended to be the first of an annual LEO lecture.

Sercombe, A., (2019), A Life in Computing, Resurrection, Issue Number 85, Spring 2019, pp. 27-28. Alan notes his appointment in 1960 as senior programmer at Standard Triumph working on their LEO II/8 following a programming career in aero-space industry

Simmons, J.R.M., (1949), Development of the Electronic Calculating Machine, Report No. 2, April 9th 1949,reporting on a visit by John Pinkerton and John Simmons to Cambridge University on 17th March 1949 to see a demonstration of EDSAC’s first working, leading directly to the decision for Lyons to commence the LEO project. Modern Records Centre, Warwick University, 3 pages, MSS.363/S4/2/1/61support the EDSAC project.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1957) Priniples of Security, Reprinted Paper held in Simmons collected archive at Modern Records Centre, Warwick University as 363-51-6a, pdf

Simpson, I, LEO III (13), from HigherSystems summarises the computers the author worked on starting with the British Oxygen LEO III – 1962 – 1965. See http://www.highersystems.co.uk/Leo_3.html

Skinner, Frank, collection of photographs and copies of articles referring to LEO made available to LEO Computers Society by Frank Skinner. Available from Frank Land f.land@lse.ac.uk and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=FrankSkinnerCollection.eml

Smith, D (2011) Innovation in a tea shop, whatever next?, Fujitsu UK & Ireland CTO Blog, http://blogs.ts.fujitsu.com/uk-ie/cto/2011/11/innovation-in-a-tea-shop-whatever-next https://davidmsmith.net/tag/innovation/

Spicer, D., (2019), Update from USA, in LEO Matters, Vol. 5, Spring 2019, pp,12 – 13. https://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/Leo%20Newsletter%20Spring%202019.pdf

Spooner, P. (1957) Electronics in the Office, Business Magazine, November Issue. This featured LEO II quite prominently but by this time many other British manufacturers also were offering for business. The Decca twin magnetic tape drive of which a photo appears was available with LEO II

Standingford, O. and Thompson, T.R. (1947) Report on a fact-finding trip leading to the development of the LEO computer.  A copy of this report which led to the decision by Lyons to build LEO is held in the London Science Museum, LEO exhibit in the Information Age Gallery. - The URL for the report is: https://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/documents/aa110067359/report-on-a-fact-finding-trip-leading-to-the-development-of-the-leo-computer

Standingford, O. (1956) Using a Computer Service and Multum in Parvo, Standingford’s summary of papers and discussions at the conference in The Electronic Office, a bound collection of articles assembled by the Office Management Association following their conference in April 1956. Bound volume held by Hilary Caminer.

Studebaker, D. (2000) The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation Review, ACM Computing Reviews, June 1st. http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=123033&listname=searchlink only takes you to the login page as need to be a member of ACM to see.

Thomas, E., (2019). The Lector & Auto-Lector Optical Mark Machines, Draft Article and Photos of Autolector and Lector. Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/s/3g1laadcw5o5pwj/Lector%20and%20AutoLector%20Optical%20Mark%20machines%20by%20Edd%20Thomas.docx?dl=0

Thompson, T.R., and Standford, O. W., (1947), Report of visit to USA May/June 1947. Extract published in Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B., Hermon, P.M., Lanf, F.F. (editors and contributors) LEO The Incredible Story of the Wold’s first Business Computer, McGraw Hill, New York, Appendix A, pages 337-359.

Thompson, T,R,, (1947-1962), LEO Chronicles, account of events related to LEO maintained by TRT.

Thompson, T.R. (1955) The Scope for Electronic Computers in the Office, presented to the Office Management Association's Conference in May.

Thompson, T.R. (1955) Diminishing Returns, Engineering, December 23rd. The paper reflects Thompsons impressions following a tour of computer installations in the USA.

Thompson, T.R. (1958) ‘Four Years of Automatic Office Work’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 106-112.

Thompson, T.R. (1960) ‘Problems of Auditing Computing Data: Internal Audit Practice and External Audit Theory’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 3, No 1, pp. 10-11.

Thompson, T.R. (1962) ‘Fundamental Principles of Expressing a Procedure for a Computer Application’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 164-169.

Thompson, T.R. and others ‘The LEO Chronicle, Major Events from 1947 to 1962’, Leo Archive, National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, LEO Computers, see https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/search/archives/367f3633-3a28-3fa9-837c-039693dcf8ee for listing of items held at John Rylands Library. As part of the library's special collections, the Archive is located in the main building of John Rylands University Library of Manchester, Burlington Street (building 18 in the campus map). Note the collection is not digitised and can be viewed by application to the librarian.

Vegter, I. (2007) The curse of the monitor, Brainstorm, 3 pages. History of LEO as object lesson in operating systems. http://www.brainstormmag.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=553%3Athe-curse-of-the-monitor&Itemid=124

Wagner, F. and Wolstenholme, P. (2003) ‘A Modern Real-Time Design Tool; Applying Lessons from LEO’, IEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol 14.

Walton, Mark, editor,(2018): A Celebration of Life in the 40s, 50s and 60s, includes an account of the leading role played by the UK in the development of computers, with a mention of the role played by LEO with photos of LEO I, published in September as part of Goodwood Revival, an annual 3 day festival celebrating Goodwood Racecourse.

Weetch, R. (2016) Middlesex University Scholarships and Awards 2016, Systematic Marketing, notes the award of the David Tresman Caminer Scholarship to Elisabetta Mori, https://smxi.com/blogs/russell.weetch/?cat=149

Weik, M.H. (1961) A Third Survey of Domestic Digital Computing Systems, Ballistic Research Report No. 1115, March, Ballistic Research Laboratories. Does not mention LEO but shows developments in USA. BRL Report 1961 http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL61.html#TOC

Whitley, P. (2005) Computerised payroll's Golden anniversary, Sage Accounting Web http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/topic/tax/computerised-payrolls-golden-anniversary

Wikipedia, LEO (Computers) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEO_%28computer%29#References

Wilcock, J. (2010) The Staffordshire University Computing Futures Museum LEO Page, available at https://archive.is/SHAKK - a good account of the Lyons and LEO story.

Wilkes, M.V. (2001) ‘John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office’, IET Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 130-144.

Wilkes, M.V. (2001) ‘John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office’, IET Engineering and Education Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 5, pp. 183-188.

Wilkes, M.V. (2000) 'Business Innovation: Introduction of new methods into business operations' IEE Inaugural Pinkerton Lecture, unpublished, copy of text with F. Land.

Williams, C. (2001) How a chain of tea shops kickstarted the computer age, Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8879727/How-a-chain-of-tea-shops-kickstarted-the-computer-age.html

Williams, C. (2015) Of Bunkers, Bytes, and Cakes
An abridged version is printed in March 2014 issue of Cyber Talk Magazine, Issue 4.

Williams, J.E. (1967) The Brains Behind The Buttons, Coventry Standard, p. 21, January 5th. The article refers to LEO/28 sold to Coventry Corporation.

Williams, R. (1976) Early Computers in Europe, AFIPS National Computer Conference and Exposition, June, Proceedings, pp. 21-29, New York. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1499799.1499804 and to download paper https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/afips/1976/5084/00/50840021.pdf The paper includes a long section on the Lyons/LEO story. From the abstract: “the paper also includes a detailed description of the birth and foundation of the most successful first British commercial computer company-Leo Computers Limited, and this gives an insight into the thinking which lay behind British early computer development”.

Woods. M.J. (2002) History of the Kidsgrove Works, http://www.members.optusnet.com.au/jaxbar/kidsgroveworkspt1.pdf A detailed account of the Kidsgrove works, including its role with English Electric LEO Marconi (EELM) and the part Kidsgrove played in the evolution of the UK computer industry.

Yost, J., (2019), Director of Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota Letter of Support for LEO Computers Society bid to become a charitable institution. Copy available from Frank Land and Dropbox. https://www.dropbox.com/s/q3cjgblu388037a/Charles%20Babbage%20Instutute%20Support%20letter.docx?dl=0


The following web links provide search facilities covering most of the UK’s and Ireland’s
official archives:
http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ and http://copac.jisc.ac.uk/

LEO Foundation. Established by David Tresman Caminer to promote the memory of LEO and use revenue from the publication of the McGraw-Hill published books on the LEO story to that end. The Foundation organised the 50th anniversary conference of the first LEO application at the London Guildhall with sponsorship from the City of London and the Wall Street Journal. The papers presented at the conference were subsequently published by the Journal of Strategic Information Systems in a special edition edited by Professor Robert Galliers. Members of the Foundation included Peter Hermon (treasurer), Colin Tully, John Aris and Frank and Ralph Land. Subsequently, after the death of David Caminer, aged 92, the Foundation was merged with the LEO Computers Society.

LEO Computers Society. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/ The Society has a membership of over 700 interested in the story of LEO. Chair of the Society is Peter Byford. The Society publishes a regular Newsletter – editor Bernard Behr, Hilary Caminer and Vince Bodsworth and from Spring 2019 called LEO Matters – describing aspects of the LEO story. One of its chief objectives is the preservation and publication of the LEO heritage. As such it has engaged in a partnership with the Cambridge Centre for Computer History in a project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to further that objective. The Society and its members hold significant memorabilia in the form of :

Centre for Computing History Cambridge (CCH): www.ComputingHistory.org.uk Contact: Lisa McGerty at lisa@computinghistory.org.uk or Jude Brimmer (archivist HLF project) at jude@computinghistory.org.uk
The CCH and LEO Computers Society reached a Partnership Agreement in the summer of 2018 for the storage, and archiving of LEO memorabilia. At the same time the Partnership submitted a bid for funds from the Heritage Lottery Fund for support of further work in archiving and providing education and presentations noting the work of the LEO pioneers. In September 2018 the Fund made available substantial funding for an initial one year period. Earlier the Centre held an exhibition featuring the LEO story in November 2017, attended by a number of members of the LEO Computers Society some of whom gave a LEO heritage project presentation. A short description of the Lyons and the LEO project, including photos can be found at: http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/6162/LEO-I-computer-became-operational/. A collection of sounds made by LEO III has been borrowed by Jason Fitzpatrick from the LEO Computers website for display at the Museum on You Tube can be heard at https://youtu.be/6vfa_RC_y1M The LEO Computers Society has transferred a number of holdings to the CCH for secure keeping on a loan basis. These include files retrieved from Peter Bird, David Caminer and Ray Henessey. A ful list transferred as at October 2018 is provided in the annex to LEOPEDIA. See also LEO Computers Archive finds New Home

In March 2018 the following items were digitised and are available at http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/leotemp/ 

LEO II test program - scanned and available online as individual pages
Preparing for a computer - scanned, single pdf available online
Intro to programming - scanned and available online as individual pages
Inland Revenue - scanned and available online as individual pages
EDSAC – micro-programming - scanned and available online as individual pages
EDSAC -  scanned and available online as individual pages
Notes on use of LEO - scanned and available online as individual pages

UK (and online) Archives

British Library, holds various LEO related items in its archives. Including oral Histories of Mary Coombs and Frank Land. BL also maintains an archive of selected patent application including LEO patents lodged by John Pinkerton. See BL Explore Archives and Manuscripts catalogue. The catalogue number is Add MS 89294 http://searcharchives.bl.uk/IAMS_VU2:IAMS032-003391654

Archives IT – an organisation devoted to the collection, archiving and dissemination of information relating to the history of UK IT. The archive includes the Oral Histories of many UK’s eminent IT personal who made that history including from LEO Ninian Eadie and Frank Land. The Director of Archive IT is Paul D Janner, Director@archivesit.org.uk. See his article Capture the Past to Inspire the Future, page 66, ITNOW, Winter 2017. Website www.archivesit.org.uk

National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, LEO Computers, https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=history-of-computing-uk;ca4a4c3.0012
provides a listing of documents held by the library.
As part of the library's special collections, the Archive is located in the main building of John Rylands University Library of Manchester, http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/ Burlington Street (building 18 in the campus map. Note that none of the collections have been digitised, but can be viewed by arrangement with the Librarian

Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). Established annual Pinkerton Lecture at the behest of LEO Computers Society to honour the achievements of John Pinkerton. The lecture series commenced in 2000. Until 2011 the lectures were held at Faraday House, London. Since that date they have been given in India by the Indian branch of the IET in Bangalore. The IET write about the lectures at http://conferences.theiet.org/pinkerton/history/index.cfm A full listing of the lectures 2000 to 2911, plus links to the lectures can be found at https://conferences.theiet.org/pinkerton/previous/index.cfm

IET Pinkerton Lectures, Faraday House London

2000 Inaugural John Pinkerton Lecture Sir Maurice Wilkes AT&T Research Laboratories

2001 LEO and the Computer Revolution David Caminer OBE

2002 Seizing the Moment: The Far Reaching Effects of Broadband on Economy and Society
David Cleevely  Analysis Group

2004 Intellectual Property, Entrepreneurs and Company successes Hermann Hauser 
Director, Amadeus Capital Partners Ltd IET.tv footage

2005 ICT Use in Rural India: Innovations Bridge the Digital Chasm Professor Subhas
Bhatnagar  Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad IET.tv footage

2006 e-Science and Cyberinfrastructure Professor Tony Hey
VP Scientific Computing, Microsoft, USA IET.tv footage

2007 Invention to Phenomenon (Sensation?) Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Director of the World Wide Web Consortium

2008 Web 2.0 (Social Media to Inspire Change) Alex Balfour IET.tv footage

2009 IT: Is it on the money? John Carey, Former Head of Business, Strategy & IT and interim
CTO, Lloyds TSB IET.tv footage

2010 The relentless march of the microchip Steve Furber IET.tv footage

2011 Internet for all - is the real barrier to reaching this vision: demand, awareness, usability
or access technology?
 Dr Mike Short IET.tv footage

IET Pinkerton Lectures Bangalore, India

2012 Connecting Computers with the human brain Prof.Kevin Warwick (University of Reading)


2013 Can India create a global powerhouse? Sir Robin Saxby, Ex Founding CEO and Chairman ARM Holdings plc


2014 Internet of Things Jim Mornish, Founder and Chief Research Officer, Machina Research

2015 'Re-imagining society through the Internet of Everything'. Dr Robert Pepper,
Vice President - Global Technology Policy, Cisco http://events.theiet.in/Pinkerton2015/

Intriguing History Website cites “the very brave and innovative decision to promote the
development and use of commercial computers” taken by the Board of J. Lyons & Co. in 1947. See http://www.intriguing-history.com/leo-computer-jlyons-co/

Wikiwand Website provides a brief history of LEO including bibliography and links. See

Marconi maintain a Marconi History website which includes a section devoted to LEO Computers and is regularly updated with news from the LEO Computers Society. Access is restricted to password holders including Frank Land, marconiincomputersandautomation

Andrew Wylie – Mister Transistor – collects and records information about early transistor computers, including LEO III – see http://www.wylie.org.uk/technology/computer/LEO3/LEO3.htm

London Metropolitan Archive, (LMA), holds material relating to J. Lyons and Company archived under GB 0074 ACC/3527 See http://search.lma.gov.uk/LMA_DOC/ACC_3527.PDF Note: The material, including references to the LEO initiative are held in boxes in their original format (not digitzed). Selected material will be made available to searchers and can be photographed provided it is required for genuine research and not commercial reasons. LMA charges £5 per document copied. Neville Lyons neville.lyons@btinternet.com, (friend of the LEO Computers Society) has photographic copies of much of the material related to Lyons. LMA hold the copyright for the archive. Catalogue numbers for LEO related materials copied by Neville Lyons are:


Cadby Hall Visitors Book, Princess Elizabeth signature.


Lyons Office Journals covering profiles of TR Thompson, EH Lenaerts and Visit of Princess Elizabeth to Cadby Hall.


Chairmen’s Statements extracts mentioning LEO 1954 and 1965


Lyons Mail 1992 extract re LEO.

The I love ICL Website http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl3a holds a collection of documents including LEO III Intercode and CLEO training manuals. These include the following:

LEO III Paperwork at:

LEO 326 11 Mag Tape boards at:

LEO III 3 Boards at:

LEO III 1 Tape , 211 LEO II/III Tapes and 1 Tape front at

LEO III Panel at:

LEO II Machine Plaque at:

The site is maintained by Pete Wooledge a member of the LEO Computers Society,

Picture of KDF9 at Hartree House and 1947 book by Hartree can be found at

LEO II at Stewart and Lloyds, Corby Heritage Centre: Exhibition of LEO memorabilia and the story of the first LEO delivered to a customer held at Corby in July/August 2015. Exhibition entitled Corby & Electronic Brain http://www.northantstelegraph.co.uk/news/top-stories/discover-corby-s-computing-heritage-with-new-exhibition-1-6866793

University of Stafford April 14th 2016, Inaugural Lecture: Fifty Glorious Years Staffordshire's Role in the Development of Computing. The Lecture, by Professor Alan Eardley, includes references to English Electric, LEO, Kidsgrove. Photos of LEO and extracts from an interview of Frank Land by Alan Eardley.

Vintage ICL Computers: includes photographs of large range of computers which made up the ICL group, including some photos of LEO items. See http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl42 and http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl42a. For further information contact Peter Wooledge tabbs-firefly@outlook.com and http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com

International Archives

Charles Babbage Institute and University of Minnesota Libraries Digital Conservatory, provides links to any LEO material held in the Library including the Pinkerton Oral History. See

The Museum of Communication, Berlin unites past and present of communication in its permanent exhibition: therefore it illustrates the origins, the development, and the future perspectives of the information society. Appealing rotating exhibitions cast light on different aspects of communication. The permanent exhibition features a cabinet that shows the history of digitalization. Within this cabinet information about and pictures of the early LEO-Computers are presented. https://www.google.co.uk/search?rls=com.microsoft:en-GB:IE-Address&dcr=0&tbm=isch&q=%EF%82%A7%09The+Museum+of+Communication,+Berlin+LEO+Computers&chips=q:the+museum+of+communication+berl

Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Purchased a Microprogram Module from a standard LEO III in 2013. The item is not on display but shown on its website together with a brief account of the LEO story written by Barbara Ainsworth. See http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682 The curator is (2018) Nicholas Crotty: ncrotty@museum.vic.gov.au

Heinz Nixdorf Museum (HNF), Padeborg Germany. Claims to be the largest Computer Museum in the world. But currently its only LEO holding is the Caminer et al LEO book in the Museum Library. Its Director, Dr Jochen Viehoff is keen to establish a LEO presence to show the LEO role in the history of computing. http://www.hnf.de/en/home.html

Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley. http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/
The Museum holds and displays a number of LEO II relics
including part of LEO II/3 the Corby Stewarts & Loyds Machine, and various LEO books and documents. Its record of holdings with photos is well organised and include the oral history of LEO veteran Chris Date (see Oral Histories below) and can be found on http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/468 http://www.computerhistory.org/search/?q=LEO+Computers&site=chm_collection&client=chm_collection&output=xml_no_dtd&submit.x=2&submit.y=2 The Museums senior curator, Dag Spicer, is a member of the LEO Computers Society and its American Correspondent. The Museum also holds a marketing film made for LEO and donated to the Museum by John Pinkerton. Museum Information about the film can be found at http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102705993 and http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/2260 More information about the LEO II/3 at Corby including Newspaper articles can be found at -http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102721101

University of Melboune Archive: holds collection of Shell Oil Australia Archive, including material relating to the purchase and use of LEO III in Australia

Computer History Archives Project: Director Mark Greenia, includes video Early Vacuum Tube Computers with a section on the LEO at around time index 7:34. and 13.09. Can be viewed at

Private Holdings

Many individuals, dead and alive; members of the LEO Computers Society or ex LEO employees, have private collections of LEO artifacts, documents and photographs, some of which are of historical importance. They include:

Alan King private archive

Peter Bird private archive, indexed and boxed and held at Cambridge Centre for Computer History.

David Caminer private archive, collected by Ray Hennessy and Hilary Caminer, part indexed and boxed.

John Aris private archive, collected by Ray Hennessy

Colin Tully private archive

Frank Land private archive, held by Elisbetta Mori.

Ernest Lenaerts 100 notebooks, quarto, compiled in manuscript, dating from 1949 to the early 1950s. The notebooks have been donated to the LEO Computers Society by Paul and David Lenaerts, Ernest's sons, and have been scanned into digital format by Bill Purvis, a member of the Computer Conservation s They can be viewed at http://www.billp.org/LEO"

Wally Dutton Wally's daughter Andrea has donated her father's collection of LEO memorabilia including published papers dating back to 1954, newspqper articles and photographs

There are many other private hoards and the LEO Computers Society would welcome information about such holdings.


A listing of which UK museums hold LEO Artefacts can be found at

Birmingham Museum J. Lyons donated some LEO I items to the Museum in 1965. Documentation relating to the donation is held by Peter Byford of the LEO Computers Society, and photographs of LEO I hardware items are held by Chris Burton of the Computer Conservation Society. The items themselves are currently (October 2018) not available for viewing whilst a major refurbishment of the Museum is taking place..

Science Museum, London. The Museum opened a new Gallery The Information Age,
which features amongst other exhibits tracing the evolution of the information age, a special section devoted to LEO, including recordings of a teashop manageress reflecting on the changes the Teashop Job (L3) made to her life. The new Gallery is sponsored by a number of members of the IT industry and organized and managed by Dr Tilly Blyth of the Science Museum. The Science Museum website includes in its section on computing, a comprehensive account of the LEO story including photographs. See https://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects-and-stories/meet-leo-worlds-first-business-computer LEO items held are displayed at https://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/search?q=Library%20LEO%20items

The National Museum of Computer History, (TNMOC), Bletchley. LEO hardware items at TNMOC are listed at Hardware May 2010.pdf (3MB) and flowcharts of LEO I microinstructions at http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoCode/MicroProgs.htm  Information about LEO related items and activities listed at V http://www.tnmoc.org/search/node/. Trustee of Museum and Secretary of Computer Conservation Society is Kevin Murrell, kevin.murrell@tnmoc.org

National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh. The Museum has LEOlll/33 (Phoenix Insurance), as well as three LEO III circuit boards, one of which is on display, and three circuit boards from from LEO IIs. The Senior Curator of Modern Science and Computing is Dr Tacye Phillipson: t.phillipson@nms.ac.uk Website: http://www.nms.ac.uk/

Museum of London, London. The Museum has parts of LEO III/45 ( Wedd, Durlacher, Morduant & Co.) including the console on display http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/Collections-Research/Collections-online/object.aspx?objectID=object-49407&start=1&rows=1 Website: http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/ Curator: Vyki Sparkes vsparkes@museumoflondon.org.uk

The Staffordshire University Computing Futures Museum LEO Page lists LEO III sales. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/leo-3s.html


John Aris – 1934 - 2010 Educated at Eton and Oxford, with a degree and life-long interests in the classics, joined LEO as a programmer in 1958. A career in LEO and its successor companies, including Chief Business Systems Engineer for ICL in 1968 was followed by heading the computer department of the Imperial Group, then becoming director of the NCC. He retained his interest in LEO up to the end of his life becoming a prominent and active member of the LEO Foundation and the LEO Computers Society.




Antony (Tony) Bernard Barnes – 1926-2000. Tony Barnes joined Lyons as a Management Trainee after graduating in 1947 working in the Statistical Office.  He transferred to the LEO programming team in November 1950 where his talents were quickly recognised.  In 1955 he accompanied Thomas Thompson to the USA on a six-week tour, visiting several computer manufacturers and users.  In January 1956 he became the Administrative Manager of the Design and Development Section of Leo Computers Limited and in June1959 the Production Director, reporting directly to Anthony Salmon, the main Lyons Board Director responsible for the whole LEO project.  He left Leo Computers Limited shortly after the merger with English Electric.

Maurice Blackburn – died 2016, LEO Engineer. See also reminiscences of Anthony Robin Davies below. Tony Morgan writes “Maurice was   very interesting person, a real gentleman with a small moustache. He had originally been a pilot with British South American Airways before it merged with British Overseas Airways. He was in Development at Minerva Road and his main claim to fame is in designing the Standard Interface Assembler for LEO III which connected industry compatible System 4 tape decks and also System 4 printers. This was particularly important for Post Office /British Telecom.. It had a unique type of logic element which made it difficult to understand and on which to diagnose faults. When we had problems in 1965 with what I called 'watered down expertise', Maurice ran two one week courses on it for engineers from around the country at PODPS, Kensington. There were a whole series of courses which I organised at that time.”

Peter Bird – born 1934, died 6th August 2017. After a career in the Merchant Navy achieving his Masters certificate ‘discovered’ computing, studied programming and applied for Jobs in computing. Interviewed by Lyons for an operator job and joined Lyons 1964 as an operator on the LEO III. Promoted rapidly to Operations Manager, then overall Systems Manager. After retirement became interested in the history of Lyons and in the LEO story resulting in the publication of his books on LEO and subsequently on Lyons the Food Empire. The LEO Computer Society book LEO Remembered is dedicated to Peter. Peter’s obituary was posted on the Guardian Newspaper website in the OTHER LIVES section on 10thSeptember 2017 at https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/10/peter-bird-obituary On October 14th it appeared on page 38 of the Guardian print edition in the Other Lives section of the Saturday edition. The obituary is also posted by Elisabetta Mori in http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/in-memory-of-peter-bird/http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/in-memory-of-peter-bird/ and Wikipedia posted an obituary at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Bird_(IT_manager)

George Booth – Died 19th September 1959, aged 90, Company Secretary and Director of J. Lyons, made the case to the Lyons Board for the company to commit itself to build a business computer and to collaborate with Cambridge University with its EDSAC project by providing some funding for the project in exchange for help in setting up the LEO project. His support was crucial in getting the support of his fellow board members; Earlier responsible for recruiting John Simmons as someone to study and improve the efficiency of Lyons. Obituary written by Isidore Gluckstein in Lyons Mail October 1959.

Dan Broido – 1903-1990 Born in Siberia of politically active parents, refugee to Germany from Soviet oppression, took degree in Mechanical Engineering in Berlin, and became an engineer at the firm of Rotaprint, who sent him to the UK in 1934 to work in their London branch. Worked for Caterpillar Tractors during World War II on nationally important work, and subsequently for a Company interested in developing automatic reading equipment, Broido filed over 100 patents including one of the earliest bar code systems. The company was taken over by ICT but in 1956 he was recruited by LEO as Chief Mechanical Engineer charged with developing optical reading facilities. This resulted in the development of Lector and later Autolector. When LEO, and later ICL started selling computers in Eastern Europe including Russia, Broido played a key role in the success of that enterprise. A biographical sketch of his carrer can be found on pages 202 to 203 in his book LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2B.htm (page 1)

David Caminer1915 - 2008 joined Lyons before World War II as a Management Trainee, his career was interrupted by National Service, losing a leg in the battlefields of North Africa, before returning to Lyons and being appointed head of the Systems Research Office ,followed by taking a prominent and leading role in the establishment of LEO. Described by John Aris as the inventor of Systems Analysis, his methodological approach was a key factor in the success of LEO. His ambition, following his retirement was to ensure that the story of LEO would take its proper place in the history of computing. He helped fulfil that ambition by his writing and the establishment of the LEO Foundation. See also a biographical sketch on page201 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer

Obituaries and Tributes

Financial Times (Alan Cane)

Switched .com (Will Safer)

The Independent (Martin Campbell-Kelly)

Booksellers Association (Martyn Daniels)

The Daily Telegraph

IT History Society

The Times

Scotts news.blogspot.com

The Guardian (Frank Land)

BBC Radio 4 ‘Last Word’

The Jewish Chronicle

Computing (Iain Thomson)

The Richmond and Twickenham Times

Twinings Tea

The Liverpool Daily Post

Centaurs Rugby Club

The New York Times (Douglas Martin)


The Atlanta Journal Constitution


The Chronicle Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia

Computing- Letters to the Editor (R.Sarson)

The Day, Connecticut


The LEO Society website (Frank Land)

The Test Bed- Personal Computer World

Vnunet.com (Iain Thomson, San Francisco)

Fujitsu - ICL pensioners (Frank Land)

Star Tribune, Minneapolis-St Paul

Chicago Tribune

Ameblo, Japan

The Eponymous Pickle (Franz Dill )

Guardian Blogs

Funeral piece (Hilary Caminer)

Gadsden Times







Jackie Caminer – died January 2017 aged 94, wife of David Caminer. Her daughter Hilary Caminer writes: ` My mother, Jackie, died this morning peacefully at home aged 94. Without her, my father's LEO work would have been much harder for him - they were heroes and heroines those LEO partners.

She had a fine career in her own right as a teacher - teaching not only here but in Brussels and Luxembourg when my father was installing computers for the EU. She was also an ardent campaigner on adult education and on local issues as well as a fine dancer, artist and craftswoman. She missed my father terribly and counted many of his LEO colleagues as personal friends.

Doug Comish writes: I was very sorry to hear that your mother had died. She was a quite remarkable character with many accomplishments and a most wonderful wife for David.

She was a super support for him during an exciting and important career.

When you look back at what was achieved with LEO it was remarkable. It was a privilege to work with that outstanding team of people from all disciplines—from application designers, programmers, operators, design, development, and production engineers and marketeers. The manner in which they all pulled together and overcame problems was probably unique.

Your father played the major role but Jackie was a great support. You can be very proud of them.

Hamish Carmichael died July 2017 aged 83. Hamish after a career with ICL became an active member of Computer Conservation Society. Always a good friend of LEO. Author of book of reminiscences and stories of ICL (including LEO) employees. Computer Conservation Society obituary http://www.coymputerconservationsociety.org/index.htm

Joe Crouch Died 2018. Joe Crouch joined LEO as a trainee programmer and quickly rose to Senior Programmer/Consultant Status, working at Hartree House. When Ilford Limited acquired a LEO II Joe headed the LEO team helping to establish the computer’s systems. Subsequently he joined Leo Fantl in South Africa as head of the Programming group. (noted by Norman Witkin)

Leo Fantl writes “A key area (in our operations) … was production, which covered our operating, data preparation, and local mine data capture. Joe Crouch took the lead here. ….In many ways Joe was another Derek Hemy, incredibly quick to grasp a new point, clear thinking, and a good writer. His direction of the preparation and subsequent management of operations was outstanding. I had chosen Joe to succeed me but this turned out to be not to his liking. Later he did much difficult design work for the larger group, notably Sage Life, the group’s insurance company” Joe married a local Afrikans girl.

John Godwin writes; “I remember them (Bob Day and Joe Crouch) as being among the pioneers of computers in South Africa. In the nineteen sixties LEO III/2 at the Johannesburg bureau was the first commercial multi-processing machine in the country.

Along with Leo Fantl and their colleagues they changed the way the Mines and other large companies ran their businesses. Today everyone is a computer expert, but then they really were. I am glad I knew them, true tr 1930,ail blazers.”

Ian Stewart Crawford. Born 20th March: Died 20th August 2018.

Born in Eltham, Taranaki, New Zealand. Oldest of 3 born to Dan a doctor and Kathleen a nurse. Excellent sportsman and chess player. Won the Auckland chess championship. At 16 he left New Plymouth Boys High and worked for a travel company. When he was 21 he did a Bachelor of Science at Auckland University in Mathematics. He had his heart set on learning computers. He travelled to Sydney and approached IBM for a job but they required a PHD or an actuary. This would take another 5 years so Ian decided to leave Australia. Went to England in 1956 and joined LEO Computers and then joined PA Consulting as a computer consultant https://www.paconsulting.com/about-us/ before returning to NZ beginning of 1966 after getting married. He became an independent management consultant in NZ and had approximately 100 assignments in his 30 years before retiring in 1996. He set up the Long Range Planning Society in NZ but this organization does not appear to exist any longer. When he retired he began work on a computer program written in PROLOG on Natural Language Processing which he continued to work on until his health began to fail at the beginning of 2018. He is survived by his wife Virginia Crawford, his daughters Sue Crawford (Independent IT consultant), Kate Everett (Chemical Engineer) and Joanna Crawford (English teacher at Massey University). He had 7 grandchildren. His brother (a doctor and leprosy polio researcher) still resides in London.

Mike Daniels died March 2018, worked in Service Bureau, Hartree House in Programming and Support 1962-1966. He went on to work with several companies, including UNISYS, RCA (in America), III, an American Company back here. He worked on computer systems all his working life, all over the world. He was mainly involved in print/newspapers but also programming with Concorde. That said, he never forgot the early days.
He was a super guy, always cheerful. I'm so glad you had good memories. Please pass on to anyone who knew him (From Betsan Daniels).

Bob Day Died 2018. Bob was recruited in 1960 by Leo Fantl to join the newly formed LEO/Rand Mines collaborative venture in Johannesburg, South Africa. Bob, of Afrikan descent, was one of a handful recruited, all of high quality joining within that first period. Bob stayed in a senior role until his retirement.

Leo Fantl writes “Bob Day was a typical South African. With an outstanding secondary education record, he joined the Post Office as a technical apprentice, and completed his training as the top performer for the whole country. Bob is mainly Afrikans but totally bilingual . When he took our appreciation course, he had never done any programming, but I still remember his hostile stare during my lectures –and how I leaned over him while he was writing his test, to see if he was actually writing sense. He got 100 per cent.’ (User-Driven Innovation, p.300)

John Godwin writes: “In the nineteen sixties LEO III/2 at the Johannesburg bureau was the first commercial multi-processing machine in the country. Along with Leo Fantl and their colleagues they (Bob Day and Joe Crouch) changed the way the Mines and other large companies ran their businesses. Today everyone is a computer expert, but then they really were. I am glad I knew them, true trail blazers”.

Leo Fantl – 1924-2000 Came to UK in June 1939 as a refugee from Czechoslovakia. Joined RAF age 18 and received technical training. Recruited by Lyons as Technical Trainee in the Planning Department in 1949, but was transferred to the LEO enterprise in 1950 to join Derek Hemy as a pioneer programmer. Despite a lack of formal training became a first rate mathematician involved in developing mathematical software and doing ground-breaking work in the problem created by rounding errors. Played major role in most of the early LEO applications including the tax tables for the UK Inland Revenue. In 1960 he was seconded to work on LEO’s first overseas venture, the joint establishment with Rand Mines of a LEO III computer bureau in Johannesburg. He spent much of his remaining career managing the computer operations of Rand Mines by then the sole owners of the bureau. A brief biographical sketch can be found on page 202 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

Gordon Foulger – 1942-2011 After graduating from Queen Mary University with a degree in General Science he became a LEO programmer seconded to work on GPO programs, including the Giro and telephone billing. He became a database specialist and consultant as his career evolved.

Bob Gibson – born 1927, died August 2016. He trained as electronic engineer as part of National Service. After working as an electronic research engineer in Civil Service, recruited by LEO as trainee maintenance engineer. Took responsibility for training customer engineers and rose to oversee all LEO training as well as managing engineering maintenance services, and personnel. Briefly left LEO to become a management consultant but returned to become head of customer support services for EELM. Completed career with ICL as manager Large Projects before setting up his own consultancy. Retired 1988 and published book on Project Management. Gained a reputation as a safe pair of hands for complex and difficult assignments. One of the stalwarts whose contribution played a key role in the success of LEO.

John Gosden – 1930-2003 Joined LEO as a programmer in 1953 after taking a degree (pass) in Mathematics at Cambridge University and made rapid progress with his understanding of software. Played a key role in the design of systems software for LEO II and LEO III. Left LEO in 1961 to emigrate to the USA for a sterling career in computing including acting as advisor on computer matters to the US Government.
A biographical sketch of his career can be found on pages 203 and 204 in Peter Bird’s
LEO: the World’s First Business Computer. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/gosdenobit.html

Kit Grindley - born in Clapham< London, April1929, died October 26th 2018 in Sydney Australia. Kit Grindley after graduation from LSE in 1956, started as a Management Trainee in Lyons in 1956 and was a part of the LEO team of LEO I and LEO II programmers. Kit developed ideas about a language for expressing requirements he called Systematics as a result of his LEO experience. He studied for a PhD at the London School of Economics and was awarded with a PhD for his research into Systematics in 1972, supervised by Frank Land. He enjoyed a successful and varied career as a computer professional, This included compiling an annual review of the chief issues faced by CIOs when working as a Director for Urwick Diebold, a subsidiary of Urwick-Orr and Partners, acting as a consultant for Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC), publishing a number of books on computer management including Systematics, editing the Journal IT Reviews working for and being awarded a PhD (1972) by the London School of Economics, followed by being appointed to, first a Professorial Fellowship at the LSE sponsored by F International, whose founder Dame Stephanie Shirley writes about his role in the company in her autobiography Let IT Go, and encouraged his research into Systematics setting up research unit for that purpose. and later by a part-time chair in Systems Automation sponsored by PWC also at the LSE. His academic career included a stint as Adjunct Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney. His wife Liz notes of his LEO years: (those who) knew him during those crazy, exciting and trail blazing years.  He was such an exceptional person and we are all lucky to have loved him.  Such a great brain and so many talents.” These crazy activities included running with the bulls in the annual Pamplona bull running festival, and getting injured in the process. His books on IT Strategy and Systems methods were acclaimed by his readers.  His death is noted in the Sydney Morning Herald – see

Link to SMH obituary:  http://tributes.smh.com.au/obituaries/smh-au/obituary.aspx?n=christopher-grindley&pid=190608434

John Grover Born December 1924, died 2000. After National Service in the RAF where he gained his pilot’s wings, joined Lyons as a Management Trainee in 1947 working on Bakery Accounts. Recruited to the new LEO team as a programmer in 1950, took responsibility for a number of the early LEO applications Including the world’s first business application, the valuation of bakery output. David Caminer paid this tribute to John Grover. "John played an invaluable part in out very very small team. He followed the methodology that we laid down unswervingly and made it possible to get it firmly established as newcomers were drawn in. He was a fine trainer and many of the young men and women who were recruited learned the new discipline working under him." He left LEO in 1956 to join Derek Hemi at EMI working on the EMIDEC. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 204 in Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer. http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res24.htm#d

Peter Gyngell born 23 February 1930, died 6thJune 2018 at his home in Wollongong, Australia.  Peter was born in Wales, graduated from RADA in 1948, but did not follow an acting career.  He became involved with LEO in 1958 working for the Ford Motor Company on their LEO II computer at Aveley on the huge Ford spare part application.  He played a critical part in the success of that work. He subsequently joined LEO Computers Limited and was appointed manager of the LEO operations Australia  in 1961.  Neill Lamming writes: “As General Manager of LEO Australia when it was formed in 1961, Peter had a massive presence in the early business computing market in Australia. He personally led the sales campaigns which resulted in spectacular wins against established competitors like IBM with such major organisations as Shell Australia, Colonial Mutual Life, H C Sleigh and Tubemakers of Australia. He was a legend who will always be remembered warmly by those who worked with him.” A more extended obituary is held in the LEO Computers Dropbox archive at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/PETER%20GYNGELL%20Obituary.doc?role=personal

Douglas Hartree 27.03.1897-12.02.1958, eminent Cambridge Scientist noted for his contribution to a number of fields of study including early computing – as an example he was the first civilian to programme ENIAC - played a crucial role in the collaboration between Cambridge University and Lyons in the development of LEO. “Hartree's fourth and final major contribution to British computing started in early 1947 when the catering firm of J. Lyons & Co. in London heard of the ENIAC and sent a small team in the summer of that year to study what was happening in the USA, because they felt that these new computers might be of assistance in the huge amount of administrative and accounting work which the firm had to do. The team met with Col. Herman Goldstine at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton who wrote to Hartree telling him of their search. As soon as he received this letter, Hartree wrote and invited representatives of Lyons to come to Cambridge for a meeting with him and Wilkes. This led to the development of a commercial version of EDSAC developed by Lyons, called LEO, the first computer used for commercial business applications. After Hartree's death, the headquarters of LEO Computers was renamed Hartree House. This illustrates the extent to which Lyons felt that Hartree had contributed to their new venture.” From Wikepedia at https:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Hartree

George A. Hayter – Died April 2015 in Northern Cyprus. Joined LEO about 1964/5, on systems and sales, at Allied Suppliers, started at Hartree House, then Computer House and Stag Place. Subsequently worked at BOAC under Peter Hermon, then headed the Stock Exchange computer transformation, before setting up his own consultancy for the financial sector.

Derek Hemy !920 –2000, Joined Lyons as Management Trainee 1939. Did war service in Royal Corps of Signals. Returned to Lyons in 1946 in Systems Analysis Office under David Caminer. Selected as first LEO programmer, a role in which his performance was outstanding. Left LEO in 1955 to senior role in EMI's venture into computing with the EMIDEC. Transferred to ICL when they took over EMI computing and later became computer consultant for Unilever. More biographical details in Bird, P. J. LEO: The First Business Computer, pp. 204- 205.

Ray Hennessy Programmer, consultant, LEO Computers Society stalwart and Committee Member, spent 32 years at LEO before retirement. Born 1934 died 15th November 2016. Oral History edited transcript https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interviews?preview=Ray+Hennessy+edited+P2.doc Obituary by John Daines Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=Ray+Hennessy+Obituary+John+Daines.doc

Mavis Hinds – 1929-2009 Worked for the Meteorological Office and used LEO I for weather forecasting – the earliest use of computers for modelling the weather in the early 1950s.

Derek Jolly Born 1930, Died June 2018. Joined LEO circa 1953-54, After grammar school started training as an accountant, but decided to try something else and was interviewed by David Caminer, and Tony Barnes and offered a job with LEO I as an operator. Worked on LEO I, LEO II and LEO III. Became shift leader and then Chief Operator. Left LEO in 1974 to join Access at Southend. Retired aged 60. Derek was one of the most popular people at Hartree, always caring and very competent in his various roles.
Oral History in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Derek+Jolly+edited+P2.doc&qsid=26418865507404425279799032559688&query=derek+jolly&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Ernest Joseph Kaye – 1922-2012 Joined John Pinkerton as his assistant in 1949 in the design of LEO I and later LEO II, having been recruited as an electronic engineer from GEC. Later took on the role of procurement officer for the engineering side of LEO. Retired in 1968 to the family firm of renting material for television and theatre productions. See also page 205 for a biographical sketch in Peter Bird’s LEO: The First Business Computer.

Ben Rooney in Wall Street Journal http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2012/05/07/u-k-computer-pioneer-dies/

Daily Telegraph 10th May 2012 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/9255130/Ernest-Kaye.html

From BBC's Jamillah Knowles on the Next Web


From Frank Land in Guardian Online 14th May 2012 http://m.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/may/14/ernest-kaye?cat=technology&type=article




Ernest Lenearts – 1910-1997 Despite an interest in things technical his parents persuaded him to take a clerical job at J. Lyons starting in the late 1920s. Bored by his job he asked for more technical training in the hope of getting a job in the Lyons laboratories. His chance to progress came during World War II. In 1941 he became a wireless mechanic in the RAF rising to the rank of sergeant before demobilisation. He returned to Lyons, but was now appointed Radio Mechanic working on innovative microwave technology. On the inauguration of the collaboration between Cambridge University and Lyons on the EDSAC/LEO project he was sent to Cambridge for the year 1948 both to learn about computer technology and to help in the design of EDSAC. When Lyons commenced building LEO he joined John Pinkerton in the design team. He made many contributions and also helped in the writing of many technical papers including one selected as the best paper of that year. He subsequently took an interest in the man-machine interface including working on speech recognition. He retired in 1969. A biographical sketch of his career can be found on pages 206 to 207 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/CCS/res/res17.htm#f A biographical sketch by his sons Paul and David is provided below and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/s/rq527ow3d8kkgak/Ernest%20Lenaerts%20recollections%20from%20sons.docx?dl=0

George Manley – 1938-2011 LEO engineer, rising from apprentice to Chief Commissioning Engineer. After an illustrious career with LEO was headhunted by Honeywell before in 1974 returning to what was now ICL. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/GeorgeManleyObit.pdf

Donald Moore1920-2013, started his career in computing by setting up and managing the Army Payroll Centre with an IBM 705, subsequently took over the Shell-Mex & BP LEO III computer Centre at Hemel Hempstead. Obituary: http://announcements.telegraph.co.uk/deaths/169330/moore

John Denys Neale - born October 1936, died 2006, Engineer and Entrepreneur founded company to help users transfer data from one make of machine to another. Their big break came when Phoenix Insurance decided to update to the IBM 360 from their old system (Editor: LEO III/33). Once again they had no way of transferring their huge database from the old system to the new. The only way they could achieve this was by manually re-entering all the information. Since John understood both formats, he managed to persuade them that he could take on the task of automating the transfer. He was given (in those days) a huge order which he used as the basis to build his company, appropriately called Transdata Ltd.


Robert E Peel Died 2015. He was an intrinsic part of the Master Routine team with such luminaries as Adrian Rymell, Colin Tully, Nigel Dolby, Sheila Milne and I’m sure a few others whose names I have forgotten. The Intercode Translator team interacted closely with the Master programmers and I remember Bob as a thoroughly pleasant and competent member of that illustrious team. I think he worked on the Allocator/Loader routine which had to take the translator output and do something sensible with it. I remember nothing but the great professional relationship we had with him.

John Pinkerton – 1919-1997 After doing research into radar systems and receiving a PhD at Cambridge recommended by Maurice Wilkes to Lyons as the Engineer to design and develop. He joined Lyons in January 1949 and started to build the small team of engineers which succeeded in building LEO I as a machine based on the EDSAC design but significantly modified for business data processing. In 1959 he was appointed a Director of LEO Computers Limited, but resigned on the merger creating EELM. On the further creation of ICL he took charge of research into the product lines being developed by EELM. Subsequently he took a leading role in the development of International Standards and represented the UK in bodies such as the European Union’s ESPRIT project. He also became Chairman of the editorial Board of the ICL Technical Journal. As a tribute to his outstanding qualities the IET inaugurated an annual Pinkerton Lecture and the WCIT set up an annual Pinkerton Award to the years leading apprentice. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 208 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.




http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/107600/oh149jmp.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y https://www.cliftoncollege.com/external/clifton-memories/john-pinkerton-and-the-first-business-computer/

Anthony Salmon – 1916-2000 A member of the ruling Salmon and Gluckstein family, founders of J. Lyons & Co, was assigned Managing Director of LEO Computers Limited on its foundation in 1954 and became a main board Director of the parent company in 1955. He played an active role in promoting LEO sales using his extensive business contacts. Ceased active involvement after merger of LEO with English Electric in 1963, though nominally Vice-Chair of merged company. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 208 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2S.htm (page 1)

John Simmons – 1902-1985 after gaining a first class degree in Mathematics from Cambridge University he was recruited by George Booth, Lyons company secretary as a Management Trainee and statistician with a brief to review and develop the Lyons business processes. Under his tutelage many innovations to business processes were introduced and in 1932 he established the Systems Research Office. In 1947 he sent two of his managers to the USA to study if Lyons could learn from American business processes. The outcome of the visit was the famous Standingford/Thompson report suggesting the possibility of computers as an engine for making the company more efficient. He used his own reputation and authority to endorse the idea and the resulting collaboration with Cambridge University to build LEO. He was appointed to the Lyons Board in 1954 as an Employee Director and a year later as a full Director. His reputation in the business world was an important factor in the establishment of LEO, the product of a catering company, as one of the leading computer supplier in the UK and further afield. A biographical sketch can be found on pages 209 o 210 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/978019 209 to 210 in Pet8614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-57059?rskey=A6LhXK&result=4

Oliver Standingford – 1912-1980, Senior Lyons Manager who at the behest of John Simmons, visited the USA with T.R. Thompson. They jointly wrote the report which was instrumental in the initiative which led to Lyons building the LEO computer. http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2S2.htm

Robin Stanley-Jones – Died 2013, joined as a technician around 1961 and worked at Minerva Rd; did 24/7 shifts on III/1 at Hartree House; then went with LEO III/8 to Australia (Tubemakers of Australia) (1963?). He returned to Minerva Road in 1967 (where he met his wife) and worked in development until the company became ICL. He remained in IT, mostly with Digital Equipment, until his retirement.

George F Stevens 1911-2002, senior Lyons manager who took responsibility for the running of the Lyons LEO Computers when LEO Computers Limited merged with English Electric. He subsequently oversaw the switch by Lyons to IBM computers.

Thomas Raymond Thompson (TRT) 1907-1976. The Lyons Mail published an appreciation of TRT in its April 1976 issue. This can be found in the Warwick University Simmons archive filed as 383-S4-14-2-9.jpg. TRT was one of the giants of the LEO enterprise.
The Lyons Journal published a
personality profile of T.R. Thompson in August 1961. A copy of the profile can be found in the London Metropolitan Museums Archive (LMA) as part of its collection of J .Lyons & Co. papers. It has been copied by Neville Lyons and is available from him.

Colin Tully – 1936-2007 Joined LEO in 1960 after graduating with a degree in Economics from Cambridge. University. Became very much involved with Software Development including coding the LEO III Master Routine. Subsequently mixed an academic career with consultancy and practice at Standard Telephone and Cables. Had stints as an academic researcher at York University, Cranfield and the London School of Economics, finishing his career as Dean and Professor at Middlesex University. Maintained his interest in LEO and its achievements via the LEO Foundation and the LEO Computers Society.

Wallace Weaving Born 1931, died 6th November, 2012. Wallace joined EELM in the UK but was transferred to EELM in Australia early in 1963. An account of his career was published in the Australian All Stars (ICL) magazine in 2013 and an edited version is held in the LEO Computers Dropbox archive, https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/Wallace%20Weaving%20Obituary.docx?role=personal
Pam Garnsey (with some added and fond reflections from Neil Lamming, Mike Benton and Kent & Sheilagh Brooks)

Mike WebbDied November 2015 at his home in Anglesey. Joined LEO as a mathematician and operational research specialist. After leaving LEO became an academic, first with the LSE and subsequently as head of business studies at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Sir Maurice Wilkes – 1913-2010 Maurice Wilkes, played a leading role in the design of the Cambridge University EDSAC Computer in the late 1940s and in return for some funding for that project from J. Lyons & Co, allowed the Lyons team to use the EDSAC design as the basis for LEO I, cooperating with the LEO team and helping in the selection of J. Pinkerton as the chief LEO Engineer. He will be remembered as a good friend of LEO.

Alex Williams.    (Words from Robert Timms)  -- A number of Alex’s LEO and ICL colleagues were among the gathering of family and friends who celebrated Alex’s life in Melbourne on 28 March, a beautiful sunny autumn afternoon. Maurice Roberts gave a moving Reflection alongside the warm family tributes.
Alex was a great work colleague and a great friend to me, highly professional and well-liked by all including our clients, successful as a technician, then in project management and later on in sales. He became a staunch Aussie while remaining a passionate Welshman, a Rugby Union fanatic and a great family man.  
To quote part of the conclusion from his son Gavin’s fine eulogy:- “So Alex – a sports mad, tight-arsed, beetroot-hating, workaholic, cynic.  A brilliant childhood, a lovely wife, two lovely kids and 6 marvellous grandchildren.  A lucky life.   Some one who was just lucky. …. No dad, you embraced
the opportunities that came your way with enthusiasm, hard work and integrity. Sure you had a lucky life, Dad, but you made your own luck too”. Alex's son-in-law Neil has prepared a Drop-Box link: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9qemziaqp04t21e/AADIMy-qDnPC0owp7Ekrazb0a?dl=0 This contains a number of items. The article "Alex’s Letter to his Loved Ones" is highly recommended. It is a wonderful description of Alex, his background and attitudes, lovingly prepared by Maurice Roberts.

Peter Wood1918-2013, who has died at the age of 95, was given a good send-off in June, well attended by family, old boys and members of his bowls club. Peter was very modest about his war, but it was revealed that he was evacuated from Dunkirk, trained as a commando, fought in India on the North-West Frontier, was captured by the Japanese – and escaped! He ended the war as a 27-year-old Lt-Colonel, still in the Far East. An England-schools rugby international, he became a pillar of the Association, and a leading member of both the cricket and rugby clubs. He was Ground Secretary for many years, and a vice-President of the Association and those clubs. After the war he was responsible for the first commercial computer in the country, the LEO I, as DP Manager for the Lyons Organisation.  A biographical sketch can be found on page 212 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

Anatol Zak LEO III engineer, 1934-2015 See https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Anatol+Zak+Biographical+Notes.doc&qsid=67346903616870339613192425801690&query=anatol+zak&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D
for brief bio.

Others whose death has been noted, but of whom more information would be welcome:

Jamie Anderson

John Merton Baker

Geoffrey Barnsley

Norman Bishop

Ray Bradshaw

Geoff Christopher

John Coombs

Geoff Cooper, Design Engineer, died 4th January 2017

Jo Davies

Keith Davies

Colin Davis

Ernie Doors

Wally Dutton

Bob Elmer

Alan Evans

Mavis Everitt (nee Tin(d)ale)

Jim Feeney, died April 2016, aged 72 after a short illness

Sean Ferguson

David Garood

Mike Gomm (Australia)

John Hemstead

Alan Hooker Jr, died 26th September, 2017

Trevor Hughes

Ron Hurst

Bob Knight, Died May 2016

Michael Knowles

Alan Lake, died May 8th 2017

Colin Lewry, died 21 September, 2017

David Litten

Ross Macadam

Ken MacLachlan

Eve Manley

George Manley

Bob Melling

Reg Miller

Sam Mitra, joined J Lyons as electronic engineer, LEO 1953, died 1985

Frank Moran

David Musson, died May 2016

Peter O’Keeffe, died February 2017

Fred Owen

Bruce Parkin

Geoff Parry

Bernard Pierce, died April 2016

Mrs Pam Procopiou, died April 2016, Hartree House Receptionist

Gerry Randall

Francis Richards

Mike Roberts

Brian Rogers

John Rookes

Dave Rowberry, Software Programmer, later member of Animals group, died 2003

John Rowe

Geoff Rowett

Ted Rowley

Ann Sayce

Anne Smewing, died 2012

Frank Thorne

John Tomlinson

Frank Walker

Note: Would anybody who has further information about people on the list including dates of birth and death, when at LEO or its clients, position or role, links to obituaries, pictures [please send them to Frank Land {f.land@lse.ac.uk}

Brief biographical sketches of a number of Lyons and LEO people can be found in LEO, the First Business Computer; P. Bird, Hasler Publishing, 1994, pages 200-212.

The following people – in alphabetical order - are noted:

Tony Barnes, Daniel Broido, David Caminer, Mary Coombs, Leo Fantl, Isidore Gluckstein, Montague Gluckstein, Samuel Gluckstein, John Gosden, John Grover, Derek Hemy, Ernest Kaye, Frank Land, Ernest Lenaerts, Joseph Lyons, John Pinkerton, Anthony Salmon, Ray Shaw, John Simmons, Oliver Standingford, Thomas Raymond Thompson, David Wheeler, Maurice Wilkes, Peter Wood.


Note: The LEO Computer Society uses Dropbox to hold records of interviews, reminiscences and memoirs recorded by the Society. The Dropbox links are provided for some of the records below. However the link can only be activated by a few designated members of the Society. Anyone who wishes to download a particular item, please apply to Frank Land at f.land@lse.ac.uk

Interviewer: Chris Evans

Date of Interview: !970s

Edited Transcript: Science Museum

Copyright: Science Museum

Reprinted as Interview between J.R.M. Simmons, Director and Chief Comptroller of J. Lyons & Co., and the Science Museum, London. Appendix B, in Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B., Hermon, P.M., Lanf, F.F. (editors and contributors) LEO The Incredible Story of the Wold’s first Business Computer, McGraw Hill, New York, pages 360-374

John Pinkerton (1)

Interviewee:  John M.M. Pinkerton 1919 - 1997

Interviewer: John Pinkerton, self interview

Date of Interview:  23.08.1988

Role in LEO: Chief Engineer

Joined LEO: 1948

Abstract: Pinkerton begins by discussing his education and wartime work in radar technology in England. He then describes his movement into the computer industry after World War II and his work on the LEO I and LEO II computers. In this context he discusses the British computer firms J. Lyons and Company, Leo Computers, English Electric Co., and International Computers Ltd.

Repository: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Transcript:  54 pages

Copyright: Charles Babbage Institute

Download: http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/107600/oh149jmp.pdf?sequence=1

Interviewee:  John M.M. Pinkerton 1919-1997

Interviewer: Chris Evans

Date of Interview: 1975

Role in LEO: Chief Engineer

Joined LEO: 1948

Abstract: John Pinkerton joined Lyons as chief engineer at the very beginning of the LEO initiatve and led the engineering side until the merger with English Electric. He held senior engineering appointments within the merged companies until his retirement. Much of the success of the LEO enterprise lay in his genius for bringing innovative ideas to practical fruition – one of the true heroes of the information age.

Repository: London Science Museum

Audio Recording: Tape 6 in Christopher Evans’s ‘Pioneers of Computing’

Transcript: Evans, Chris, (1983) Pioneers of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 5, No 1, pp 64-72, January-March.

Copyright: Audio, London Science Museum, Transcript, IEEE

Interviewer: Thomas Lean, British Library

Date of Interview: 2010 Reference: C1379/16 Role in LEO: Programmer

Joined LEO: 1953

Role in LEO: Programmer

Abstract: This is a full oral history of the life of Mary Coombs as part of the British Libraries Oral History series on the life of selected British Computer scientists.

Repository: British Library, National Life Stories, an oral history of British Science

Type of recorder: Marantz PMD661 on secure digital (Sessions 1-4) Marantz PMD660 on

compact flash (Sessions 5-9) Recording format: Wav 24 bit 48 kHz (sessions 1-4) WAV 16 bit 48 kHz (sessions 5-9) Total no. of tracks 9 Stereo Total Duration 07 hours:14 minutes:40 seconds

Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0016XX-0000A0.pdf

Copyright/Clearance: Open except for 00:56:57 – 00:59:15 of track 7 and 00:21:51 - 00:22:49 of
track 9; these sections are closed for 30 years until June 2041.

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Programmer,

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Mary Coombs as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/


Interview Text

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google. Free to view.

References to Mary Coombs listed in Wikipedia:

    1. Jump up ^ "Mary Coombs". The British Library. 

    2. ^ Jump up to: a b computingheritage (2013-09-05), Mary Coombs shares her story, retrieved 2018-07-26 

    3. Jump up ^ Douglas, Ian (2013-09-11). "Bletchley Park celebrates women in computing". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    4. Jump up ^ "Women in Computing: a British Perspective - Google Arts & Culture". Google Cultural Institute. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    5. Jump up ^ "Mary Coombs - Computing History". www.computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    6. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f "Mary Coombs". Diversity in HPC. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 

    7. Jump up ^ "Museum celebrates women in computing". BBC News. 

    8. ^ Jump up to: a b Bird, Peter J. LEO: the First Business Computer. Wokingham: Hasler Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-9521651-0-4. 

    9. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ferry, Georgina (2004). A Computer Called LEO: Lyons Tea Shops and the world's first office computer. Harper Perennial. p. 106. ISBN 1 84115 1866. 

    10. ^ Jump up to: a b Janet., Abbate, (2012). Recoding gender : women's changing participation in computing. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262018067. OCLC 813929041. 

Interviewer: Thomas Lean, British Library

Date of Interview: 2010 Reference: C1379/17

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: This is a full oral history of the life of Frank Land as part of the British Libraries Oral History series on the life of selected British Computer scientists.

Repository: British Library, National Life Stories, an Oral History of British Science

Type of recorder: Marantz PMD661 on secure digital Recording format: WAV 24 bit 48 kHz Total no. of tracks 18 Stereo Total Duration: 15 hours:06 minutes:31 seconds

Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0017XX-0000A0.pdf

Copyright/Clearance: No restrictions except for the following sections: track 1 [between 35:38 – 35:58, and 40:36 – 41:26], track 4 [between 31:46 – 34:56], track 8 [between 13:04 – 13:15 and 47:20 – 49:19], track 9 [between 18:21 – 18:41, 20:20 –

20:21, 01:02:54 – 01:03:31 and 01:08:31 – 01:09:46] and track 13 [between

18:10 – 19:11] which are closed for 30 years (until March 2041)

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Frank Land as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/

Repository: Interview Text: Dropbox LEO Interviews https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&qsid=75695419906493629711857519034651&query=frank+land+google&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Professor Alan Eardley

Date of Interview: 21.02.2016

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Professor Alan Eardley interviewed and filmed Frank Land as part of his collection of material on the history of computing for his inaugural lecture at Stafford University, April 14th 2016.

Repository: Pre-Interview response to interview questions: Dropbox LEO Interviews https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Frank+Land+Feb+2016+unedited.doc&qsid=80177254035542482665344419183340&query=frank+land&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Interview and Video: Editing in process

Copyright: Alan Eardley

Restrictions: Interview and video will be available to members of LEO Computer Society

Interviewer: Paul Jagger, Director Archive IT

Date of Interview: 22.05.2018

Editor: Helen Carter, ArchiveIT

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Archives IT are conducting and archiving interviews of UK individuals who have contributed to the development and evolution of IT. Frank Land has been added to the archive with a whole life interview. Ninian Eady is also in the archive.

Archive IT repository: http://archivesit.org.uk/interviews/frank-land/

LEO Computers Society Repository: https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interview%20transcripts/FRANK%20LAND%20by%20ArchivesIT.doc?role=personal

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite as part of LEO Computer Society’s Oral History Project

Date of Interview: 31st October 2011

Role in LEO: Bureau Manager, Export Manager

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Ralph joined the Lyons Teashop Division in 1953 as management accountant for the Teashops and transferred to LEO in 1954. He rose to manager of the LEO City Office followed by spells in promoting LEO exports in Paris and Dusseldorf before heading the LEO/English Electric team working in Eastern Europe including Soviet Russia. His subsequent career until retirement was with Rank-Xerox and Rolls Royce working on exports to Eastern Europe. Awarded OBE and subsequently CBE for services to UK export trade.

Text: Edited by Ralph Land and Hilary Caminer

Repositary: AAhttps://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ralph+Land+unedited.doc&qsid=73304227362417986503993819006613&query=ralph+land&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ralph+Land+audio+MP3.eml&qsid=34528291897312889742744536166909&query=ralph+land+mp3&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.


Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2 011

Role in LEO: Bureau Manager, Export Manager

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Ralph Land as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/

Repository: Interview Text: to be completed

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Design Engineer, head of engineering procurement

Joined LEO: 1949

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Ernest Kaye as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry.


Interview Text:

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Thomas Haigh

Date of interview: 2007

Role in LEO: Mathematical Programmer

Joined LEO: 1962

Abstract: Chris Date, well known for his work on Data Base theory and practice started his career with LEO in 1962 – 1967, and provides a description of his experience on pages 7 - 9 of the transcript of the interview. Very complimentary about LEO

Repository: Computer History Museum, California

- 51 pages

Link to Museum: http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102658166

Copyright: Computer History Museum CHM Reference number: X4090.2007

Interviewer: Janet Abbate

Date of Interview: September 2001

Role in LEO: Programmer on LEO I and LEO II/I

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Betty joined Lyons as a labour cost clerk in the Statistical Office in September 1949. In 1953 she was selected for a LEO appreciation course, and as a result was offered a job as a programmer on LEO I. Despite scepticism about what LEO would be able to do she accepted the offer. She worked on a number of applications – payroll under Mary Blood (Coombs) and Tea Blending under Frank Land. She gained a reputation as a sound and reliable programmer. She left LEO to work as a programmer with EverReady before leaving to start a family.

Reference: http://ethw.org/Oral-History:Betty_Cooper

LEO Computers Society: Oral History Project

The LEO Computers Society has initiated an Oral History Project assisted by funding from the Association for Information Technology (AIT) Trust. Recordings and edited transcripts are held in LEO Dropbox archives. They can be accessed and downloaded by selected members of LEO Computers Society only. The list of Oral Histories taken to-date (January 2016) includes:

Interviewer: John Hoey

Date of Interview: 23/07/2014

Role in LEO: Programmer

Joined LEO: 1959

Abstract: Alan received degree in mathematics and after National Service joined Armstrong Siddeley as a programmer on a Ferranti Mark I. The company’s merger with another aircraft manufacturer led to his leaving and joining LEO. He worked on the LEO II at Standard Motors, but in 1963 joined Peter Gyngell in Australia working with a number of LEO computers sold in Australia and later with EELM and then ICL; finishing his career in 1996 as a very senior member of the successor companies working in an administrative and legal capacity.

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: Part1: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+Part+1+audio.mp3&qsid=31162631801321269845628828947601&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Part 2: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+Part+2+audio.mp3&qsid=31162631801321269845628828947601&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3/4

Text: Edited Transcripts, Part 1 and 2 Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+edited+P2.docx&qsid=10543217434440878150799352370356&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: 26/04/1012

Role in LEO: Computer Operator

Joined LEO: October 1961

Abstract: John was an operator in the LEO II bureau and then did acceptance trials for LEO III systems in the Minerva Road factory before moving onto System 4 trials and software development.  His oral history covers the role of operators in the early days.  He progressed through ICL until retirement as a senior consultant in 2002. Active member of LEO Computers Society

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Daines+audio.wav&qsid=85116196848144396245617180699123&query=john+daines&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Edited Text: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Daines+Edited+P2.odt&qsid=55626073051723543599179871883696&query=john+daines&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3/4

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview: 17.04.2012

Role in LEO: Statistician

Joined LEO:

Abstract: Mathematics degree from Imperial College, followed after National Service by Masters in Statistics from LSE. Joined Lyons Maid (Ice Cream division of J. Lyons) working on weather based Ice Cream forecasting. Helped define LEO Ice Cream sales job, later working on bakery sales. Remained an employee of J. Lyons.

Repository: Partially edited Transcript: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Simon+Benedictus+Unedited.doc&qsid=28924991798288976813310853533124&query=simon+benedictus&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Part 1: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Oral%20History%20Recordings/Simon%20Benidictus%20interview?preview=BENIDICTUS+PT1.m4a

Part 2: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Oral%20History%20Recordings/Simon%20Benidictus%20interview?preview=BENIDICTUS+PT2.m4a

Recording: MP3/4

Text: Dropbox Unedited Transcripts Part 1 &2 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Simon+Benedictus+Unedited.doc&qsid=28523817330004498807401206891638&query=simon&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: Tim-Greening Jackson

Date of Interview: 22.05.2008

Role in LEO: Computer Programmer, Systems Analyst

Joined LEO: December 1954

Abstract: Roger left Mill Hill school in 1950 to self-study to become an actuary but in 1954 responded to an advertisement for a programmer job at Cadby Hall. Joined LEO aged 22, the then youngest programmer. Rapid progress led to him being given the British Rail station to station distancing job working with John Gosden under David Caminer. The oral history is confined to his early career and the details of the BR job. A text-only Part 1 to the composite oral history provides a summary of his career to retirement. His career after leaving LEO in 1957 included managing the LEO 2/9 at Ilford Limited, working for Ford Motor Company and rising to head much of their European Computer organisation, and finishing his career as a private consultant.

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Roger+Coleman+unedited.pdf&qsid=92892594060940537749377287578228&query=roger+coleman&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Composite Oral History: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Roger+Coleman+Composite+edited+P2.doc&qsid=92892594060940537749377287578228&query=roger+coleman&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Windows Media Player

Copyright: Tim Greening-Jackson, but unrestricted access permitted subject to due acknowledgements.

Restrictions: None Known

Interviewer: Tony Morgan Died 2017

Date of Interview: 16.08.2011

Role in Lyons: Systems Research Office, then Lyons Computer Services

Joined Lyons: Autumn 1959

Abstract: Alan studied Classics at Oxford and on graduating was taken on by Lyons in their Systems Research Office. A career working on a number of the Lyons LEO application followed by a senior role in Lyons Systems Services, formed to develop and service computer applications first on LEO machines and later when Lyons replaced LEO with IBM computers. Acting Chief Executive Institute of Administrative Management.


Text: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interviews?preview=Alan+King+edited+P2.doc

Edited Text: Dropbox. https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=Alan+King+edited+P2.doc

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: John Daines Died November 2016

Date of Interview: 27.04.2012

Role in Lyons: Programmer

Joined Lyons: 1959

Abstract: Joined as trainee programmer after being offered jobs by Elliott computing and English Electric.. Worked on many projects including British Oxygen. Despite temptation to join other companies remained with LEO and its successor companies working in a senior capacity on a number of Government projects and after retirement working as a consultant to ICL and its associated companies. Active in LEO Computers Society until his death.


Text: Partially edited transcript in dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Hennessy+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07905257361119047631689560727569&query=ray+hennessy&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Hennessy+audio.wav&qsid=07905257361119047631689560727569&query=ray+hennessy&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: 08.11.2011

Role in Lyons: Commissioning Engineer

Joined Lyons: December 1947

Abstract: Joined LEO as engineer. Spent most of his career as commissioning engineer on LEO IIs and IIIs, finishing as senior commissioning engineer. In retirement LEO Computer Society’s expert on all matters relating to LEO hardware. Active Member of LEO Computers Society

Text Repository: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Tony+Morgan+edited+P2.doc&qsid=06562942885418735087845356680765&query=tony+morgan&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Text: Transcript being currently edited by Tony Morgan


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite Died: August 2016

Date of Interview:

Role in LEO: Manager training and customer support

Joined LEO: February 1956:

Abstract: Trained as electronic engineer as part of National Service. After working as an electronic research engineer in Civil Service, recruited by LEO as trainee maintenance engineer. Took responsibility for training customer engineers and rose to oversee all LEO training as well as managing engineering maintenance services/ Briefly left LEO to become management consultant but returned to become head of customer services for EELM. Retired 1988.

Repository: Unedited transcript of recording in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=bob+gibson+unedited+transcript.doc Edited Transcript in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Bob+Gibson+edited+P2.doc&qsid=21711540675593191009762985903592&query=bob+gibson&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview: 6th December 2011

Joined Lyons: December 1949

Role in Lyons: Management Trainee to management accountant

Joined LEO: April 1956

Role in LEO: Programming, and education to head of marketing

Abstract: Born in Liverpool, educated at grammar school, took Mathematics at Kings College, Cambridge. Then National Service finishing with rank of Captain. Joined Lyons as a Management Trainee in 1949, rose to management rank in the Lyons Work Office as cost accountant. Selected to join LEO in 1956. Long and distinguished career with many roles including education, staff selection, sales and marketing finishing as head of marketing before retirement. Active sportsman, including playing soccer for Cambridge University.


Text: Dropbox Edited Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Doug+Comish+edited+P2.docx&qsid=62813332913772013628023522491317&query=doug+comish&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview:

Role in LEO: Commissioning and Design Engineer

Joined LEO: Spring 1957

Abstract: Took Science degree at Imperial College after national service in RAF. Joined LEO after seeing an advertisement. Steve worked as a commissioning engineer first on LEO II machines including commissioning the Bull Printer on LEO II/3 and subsequently on LEO II machines. Achieved rank of Chief Engineer for LEO III. Involved in design of the abandoned LEO IV after merger with English Electric. Subsequent career from 1965 with Medical Research Council working as a design engineer.

Repository: Edited transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Steve+Farrow+edited+P2.odt&qsid=63426424578581135909584747883713&query=steve+farrow&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer John Daines

Date of Interview: 27th September 2016

Role in LEO: Design Engineer, Project Manager

Joined LEO: 1949

Abstract: Joined Pinkerton as a design engineer, rising to senior design engineer for LEO I and II. Left LEO in 1956 to work with John Bennet in Australia at Sydney University. A distinguished career as project manager and design engineer with ICL followed including work on communication Systems. Retired in 1981 but carried on working as private consultant.

Repository: Dropbox

Text: Unedited Transcript located at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Shaw+by+John+Daines+unedited.docx&qsid=18439443641769828588990205651972&query=ray+shaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Shaw+interview+with+John+Daines+Sept+27th+2016.WAV&qsid=18439443641769828588990205651972&query=ray+shaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview: 31.01.2012

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant, Manager

Joined LEO : 1960

Abstract: As a mathematics graduate Neil chose LEO when offered jobs in the computing industry. Started work at Hartree House working on Army Payroll, joined team at Renold Chains and subsequently recruited to join Peter Gyngell in Australia. Rapid rise post merger to become Managing Director of ICL Australia at age 37. Left company to work on executive recruitment and retired at age 50.


Text: Dropbox. Edited Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Neil+Lamming+edited+P2.docx&qsid=13314278810110130718813652649947&query=neil+lamming&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Peter Byford

Date of Interview: October, 2015

Role Lyons:

Joined Lyons:





Copyright: Leo Computers Society.


Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: April 2016

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Joined LEO following Mathematics degree at Oxford University and National Service. Started as programmer under Leo Fantl working on mainly mathematical applications on LEO I. Spend whole career with LEO and successor companies as a senior application and software programmer retiring aged 60.

Repository: Transcript of recording and first edit of transcript (Alan Hooker) in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ernest+Roberts+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07744281890109968756581823532303&query=ernest+roberts&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions None known

Interviewer: Cyril Platman Died June 2018

Date of Interview: 11th April 2016

Joined LEO: Circa 1953-55

Abstract: After grammar school started training as an accountant, but decided to try something else and was interviewed by David Caminer, and Tony Barnes and offered a job with LEO I as an operator. Worked on LEO I, LEO II and LEO III. Became shift leader and then Chief Operator. Left LEO in 1974 to join Access at Southend. Retired aged 60.

Repository: Edited transcript of recording in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Derek+Jolly+edited+P2.doc&qsid=26418865507404425279799032559688&query=derek+jolly&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions None known

Interviewer: Tony Morgan Died: September 2017

Date of Interview: 6th September 2016

Joined Lyons: 1964

Abstract: After a career in the Merchant Navy achieving his Masters certificate ‘discovered’ computing, studied programming and applied for Jobs in computing. Interviewed by Lyons for an operator job and joined Lyons 1964 as an operator on the LEO III. Promoted rapidly to Operations Manager, then overall Systems Manager. After retirement became interested in the history of Lyons and in the LEO story resulting in the publication of his books on LEO and subsequently on Lyons the Food Empire.

Repository: Edited Interview Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Bird+edited+P2.odt&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+bird&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of Interview: November 2nd 2016

Joined LEO: 1962

Abstract: Joined as a mathematical working on linear programming transportation applications. Long career with LEO and its successor companies working at various locations including Hartree House and subsequently Kidsgrove. His work involved hardware and software design as well as applications and he finished with the title of Chief Engineer. Appointed visiting Professor at Southampton University. Regarded his early learning of CLEO as a key step in his understanding of design in his later career.

Repository: Unedited transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+unedited.docx&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Part 1 and 2 MP3 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+Part+1+audio.MP3&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D and https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+Part+2+audio.MP3&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Mike Storey

Date of Interview: 4th April 2016, Transcribed 2nd February 2017

Joined LEO 1955

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant

Abstract: Paul Dixon, a refugee from Czechoslovakia (Prague) in 1947, graduated from Manchester University with an honours degree in Economics and Politics. Intrigued by an advertisement for programmers, applied, was interviewed by Peter Hermon and joined LEO Computers as a programmer. Although only with LEO for two years had a rapid rise ranging over a range of applications. Joined Roger Coleman at LEO II customer Ilford’s. Emigrated to Canada and later the USA for a career in computing, including very senior, and prominent positions with major companies.

Repository: Edited Transcript in Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=PAUL+DIXON+edited+P2.docx

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview: 7th February 2017

Joined LEO: 1958

Role in LEO: Maintenance Engineer LEO II

Abstract: A lively, chatty interview full of personal anecdotes relating to his life and work experiences. Concentrated on Maths at School and awarded scholarship to Cambridge. But opted to do National Service in Royal Signals, for two years, rising to rank of Lance Corporal. Opted for a degree in Physics at University of Birmingham, graduating with II/1. Saw LEO advert for engineers, taken on at Minerva Road and after training school became maintenance engineer on a range of LEO/IIs. Spent 3 years with LEO, then joined Honeywell as manager of software development. Subsequent career with Rank Xerox in marketing, as consultant with CACI, then working with James Martin and after a spell in Australia (1997), set up as independent consultant before retirement.

Transcribed: February 2017

Edited March 2017

Repository: Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Michael+Mills+edited+P2.doc&qsid=62766657683312337088935222380943&query=michael+mills&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Cyril Platman

Date of Interview: 27th July 2016

Joined LEO: 1958

Role in LEO: Commissioning and Maintenance Engineer LEO I and LEO III

Abstract: Received background training in Electronics doing his National Service in the Royal Air Force. Decided on career in that field after seeing an advert for trainee engineers from LEO. After training worked first as commissioning engineer on LEO II/7 than became site maintenance enginner on LEO II and LEO III sites including acting as chief engineer on Ilford’s LEO III.. Retired from ICL in 1969 to join an independent computer maintenance company working on LEO machines.

Edited Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Patrick+Blakes+edited+P2.doc&qsid=66660779201437156227048281367520&query=patrick+blakes&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Date of Interview: 6th December 2016

Transcribed: 27th December 2016

Editor: Bob Marsh received copy for editing 5th January 2017

Joined LEO: Summer 1955

Role in LEO: Design Engineer on LEO II

Abstract: Studies Natural Sciences at St Andrews, specially interested in Electronics. Commissioned in REME and posted to teach at Shrivenham, On discharge interviewed by Pinkerton and joined LEO engineering team in Olaf Street. Left LEO for a career in electronic control devices, but retained an interest in LEO. Joined LEO Computers Society and started collecting LEO memorabilia

Edited Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ian+White+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07044367727534149534144072593442&query=ian+white&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: David Phillips

Joined LEO: Not clear. Worked on LEO III/6 Shell-Mex and BP in 1965 as part of site engineering team

Role in LEO: Maintenance Engineer

Date of Interview: 16th February 2017

Transcribed: 19th February 2017

Editor: David Phillips is undertaking a first edit of the transcript of a very confusing and chronologically muddled interview. Tony Earnshaw will be asked to re-edit the revised script.

Abstract: Worked as untrained TV repair man in 1950s, Spotted by passing LEO engineer, invited to apply to LEO. Started work as assistant to site engineers on the Shell-Mex and BP LEO III in Hemel Hampstead. Prides himself on his successful career as an engineer without having acquired any qualifications. Rose to be chief site engineer at Minerva Road responsible for seven sites. Left ICL to become independent engineer,

Transcript: first edit by David Phillips at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Tony+Earnshaw+unedited.docx&qsid=21816248812713184251072359666087&query=tony+earnshaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Neville Lyons

Joined LEO: September 1955

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant

Date of Interview: 15th June 2017

Transcribed: 28th June 2017

Editor: Bob Marsh. Edited version to Dropbox 7th July 2017

Abstract: Peter Hermon joined LEO after he obtained first class honours from St. John’s Oxford, and seeing an advertisement for a mathematician from J. Lyons. He was one of the most brilliant LEO recruits and quickly made his mark as a programmer and consultant. He was involved in a number of LEO sales, working first with Wills Tobacco and later with Dunlop Rubber. He joined Dunlop to first run their LEO installation, but subsequently rose to head Dunlop Management Services world-wide. He moved to BOAC where he was responsible for the development of BOADICEA the airline reservation system which became a major UK success story and later became a Director of British Airways. After retirement in 1989 he became an active member of the LEO Foundation, acting as its treasurer. Peter’s other interests were walking in North Wales and he has published a number of guides for walking in Wales.

Location of Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Hermon+edited+P2.doc&qsid=96985580077109303538682721508938&query=peter+hermon&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewee: Peter Byford DOB: 1944

Editor: Frank Land, May 2018

Abstract: Peter had a long career in computing starting when he left Grammar School aged just 17 and following an advertisement applied to LEO Computers Limited. Passing the aptitude test as the sole non-graduate applicant at that time, he was trained as a programmer to work on the LEOIII/1 Hartree Service Bureau. He worked on a number of applications, rising in seniority, but left LEO in 1965 to join the AA as a programmer and data analyst. His subsequent career, primarily in Data Management included a 27 year stint at Eastern Gas, followed by the software contractor and consultant John Hoskins, and later as an independent contractor/consultant. Despite his relatively short stint at LEO at the beginning of his career, it is to his LEO roots he returned on retirement. After attending an early LEO reunion he took over the chair of the LEO Computers Society, and oversaw its growth to over 800 members (May 2018), and continues to fill that role with undiminished enthusiasm.

Interviewee: Geoff Pye DOB: 1932

Interviewer: Paul Bygrave

Date of Interview: 3rd August, 2017

Editor: Frank Land

Joined LEO: 1956

Abstract Geoff Pye was brought up in near Ilford, East London, took a degree in Geography at Kings College, University of London, and after 2 years National Service, looked to start a career as a Management Trainee. Applying to Lyons amongst other companies he was diverted to the fledgling LEO organisation, Interviewed by Ted Rowley and David Caminer he was impressed took the aptitude test and was offered a job as a programming trainee under the tutelage of Leo Fantl. After a period rising in the programming/system ranks, including secondment to the MPNI LEO II/6 in Newcastle changed tack to running computer operations taking charge of first of the London LEO service bureaux and subsequently the EELM and ICL bureau operations. Following a brief interlude working for consultants John Hoskyns returned to ICL as a1 senior manager for BARIC the joint service bureau company set up by ICL and Barclays Bank. As batch services were sold off to be replaced by INS - the ICL network services company Geoff took up the reigns. More senior jobs in operations followed before retirement age 60.

Repository Recording: stored as 8 fragments https://www.dropbox.com/s/qf5ev5z1stptyyb/GeoffPye1%201m.mp3?dl=0








Repository Edited Transcript:

https://www.dropbox.com/s/3khrrmoj1cn7njr/Geoff%20Pye%20edited%20P2.docx? dl=0

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewee: Mike Gifford DOB: 1936

Interviewer: Dag Spicer

Date of Interview: 30th September 2017

Editors: Bob Marsh (P1) and Frank Land (p2) Nov 2017

Joined LEO: 1959 or 1960

Role in LEO: Started as temporary assistant at Minerva Road, then trained as consultant at Hartree House and rose rapidly working as consultant in a variety of locations including the Midlands, North West London ICL region. Finishing work with ICL as Chief Executive of ICL Australia for two and a half years, before leaving computer industry.

Left LEO/ICL: 1975

Abstract: After Grammar School education opted for National Service in Royal Navy before taking his place at University. Seconded to work in Aircraft Carriers and specialised in meteorology. Following two years National Service went to London School of Economics for a B.Sc. in Economics. Greatly influenced by Karl Popper’s ideas on Scientific Methods. His father suggested looking for a job up in a rising industry – either computing or microbiology. Selected computing and following an advertisement started a temporary job with LEO at Minerva Road. See above for role in LEO which included working as the LEO consultant with customers such as Cerebos Salt. Tote Investors, Eveready Batteries and Heinz and abroad the Czech steelworks. Identified early as potential high flyer by David Caminer. Following the merger with ICL he took charge of one of the major marketing regions. Following a number of senior appointments was Appointed Managing Director ICL Australia (1974). After a successful two and a half years left the Computer Industry on appointment as Managing Director of the newly merged Cadbury Schweppes Australia Company. More senior management positions followed back in the UK culminating in being appointed Chief Executive of the Rank Organisation, an enterprise he transformed from an ailing enterprise to be highly successful.

Repository Recording: https://www.dropbox.com/s/1fds7jfcfg947r2/Mike_Gifford_audio.mp3?dl=0

Repository Edited Transcript:


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Interviewee: Brian Mills DOB: 1933

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview:

Editor: Frank Land, September 2018

Joined LEO: July 8th 1957

Abstract After completing Grammar School from a primarily languages stream, Brian completed his National Service of two years in the Royal Corps of Signals with the rank of 2nd lieutenant. A degree in Economics from Bristol University followed, completed in 1956. A number of jobs, followed, some in marketing, one teaching Hungarians English for the Coal Board, but none of them wholly satisfactory. Tempted by advert to try for a job with LEO and following interviews by Alan Jacobs and Doug Comish accepted a job offer a trainee programmer joined LEO in July 1957. His programming career started with a number of payroll systems under the tutored by LEO Fantl. Later he joined Leo Fantl in South Africa as systems manager on the LEO III in November 1960. Returned to England after two years to join the consultants’ marketing LEO IIIs, and included Freeman’s Mail Order amongst his successes. Shortly after the return from South Africa LEO became EELM, a move Brian did not enjoy, deciding to join consultants Coopers and Lybrand. This was the beginning of a long and successful career outside LEO embracing a number of companies, culminating with head of management services for British Oxygen. After leaving British Oxygen Brian set up his own venture capital business

The following entries are to be completed:

Interviewee: John Page DOB: 1944

Interviewer: Dag Spicer

Date of Interview: April 11th 2017

Joined LEO: 1958?

Role in LEO: Joined as apprentice engineer in Minerva Road, became commissioning engineer, and chief commissioning engineer on a number of LEO IIIs

Left LEO: Made redundant after formation of ICL

Interviewee: Ian Bruce DOB: 1947

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Role in LEO

Date of Interview: 5th July 2017

Interviewee: Ninian Eadie DOB: 15.3.1937

Interviewer: John Ferguson

Date of Interview: 6th October 2017

Joined LEO: January 1961

Role in LEO:

Interviewee: Ninian Eadie (2)

Interviewer: Archives IT

Repository: http://archivesit.org.uk/interviews/ninian-eadie/

Interviewee: Jean Elliott DOB:

Interviewer: Elisabetta Mori

Joined LEO: Probably 1948/49 having been a Lyons clerk

Role in LEO: Clerical assistant to John Pinkerton

Abstract: One of the earliest to join the LEO team as a clerical assistant involved in a variety of tasks such as filing and note taking for the design team comprising John Pinkerton, Ray Shaw Ernest Kaye and Ernest Lenaerts. Even permitted to do some soldering. Always remembers with great fondness working with LEO

Transcript of Interview:


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewee: Barry Fox DOB: 1935

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of Interview: 19th July 2017

Interviewee: Margaret Fox (James when she joined LEO)

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of interview: 19th July 2017

Editor: Hilary Caminer

Interviewee: Michael Jackson

Interviewer: Elisabetta Mori

Date of interview: 25th July 2018

Interviewee: Brian Mills D.O.B: 1933

Interviewer: David Philips

Date of Interview: 27.02.2018

Editor: Frank Land

Archive: Dr Archive

Interviewee: Alan Jacobs D.O.B. 16.06.1931

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview: 17.10.2018

Editor: Frank Land

Joined LEO: 1957

Abstract: Alan, born in Stoke, took a degree in History at St John’s, Oxford, commencing in 1950, after National Service in the RAF and tried a number of jobs as management trainee, but was not inspired by them. Tempted by LEO advert and after interview was invited to join as programmer. Involved with a succession of service jobs rising in seniority. Despite his admiration and like of working at LEO decided to further his career by leaving LEO, first for BEA and then other organisations none of which had the sense of knowing what they were doing he had found at LEO. When the opportunity came in 1962 he re-joined BAOC to join the team being built by Peter Hermon to develop a comprehensive Airline Reservation System. Alan headed a team developing ground-breaking Airline Departure system. Alan left British Airways and was recruited by Sainsbury’s as their Director of IT helping to transform the business. After Sainsbury’s Alan retired

Restrictions: None known

Archive: https://www.dropbox.com/s/32q9ll62urvr0k9/Alan%20Jacobs%20edited%20P2.rtf?dl=0

Interviewee: Peter Wharton


Date of Interview:

Pending Oral Histories

Tony Denton

Interviewer: John Paschoud

Dave Rocke

Interviewer: John Daines

Vince Bodworth

Interviewer: Peter Byford

WEJ Parry

Interviewer: Jean Elliott

John Godwin

Interviewer: Bernard Behr via Skype to South Africa

Norman Witkin

Interviewer: Bernard Behr via Skype to South Africa

Leonard Letton

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Georgina Ferry Transcripts:

Georgina Ferry has donated the unedited transcripts of the people she interviewed for her book A Computer called LEO to the Heritage Project of the LEO Computers Society. The following interviewees are included:

Anthony Salmon, Maurice Wilkes, David Wheeler, Murray Laver, David Caminer, John Pinkerton, Ernest Kaye, Ray Shaw, Derek Hemy, Peter Hermon, John Aris, Mary Coombs, Ralph Land, Frank Land (incomplete first half of transcript lost)


I was late on the scene as far as LEO was concerned. I joined EELM as press officer in August 1966. My joining just happened to coincide with the publication of the very first issue of Computer Weekly and my first engagement was lunch with Jim Bonnett, the paper’s editor. A good start to a career in computer industry PR.

I got the job after a series of interviews, but principally because I managed, in the last of them, to hit it off with David Caminer, having won a national award from the British Association of Industrial Editors for a newspaper with an 80,000 circulation that I’d edited for my first employer after a history degree at university, Michelin Tyre Company. After four years with Michelin I reckoned I knew pretty much all there was to know about tyres and there were these things called computers that were coming to the fore and were clearly offering a much wider horizon.

As a non-technologist who could string words together quite readily my role lay largely in explaining technology to a lay audience. The lowest common denominator applied: if I understood something, others would too!

So there I was in the EELM offices in Stag Place, Victoria, charged with publicising the new data processing machines that were rapidly spreading across industry and commerce, reporting to a PR manager, but also working directly with Caminer, an experience that was stimulating and unpredictable at the same time.

Caminer was a manager who commanded respect by being on top of his subject and passionately so. He inspired loyalty, but also left some enemies in his wake. That didn’t always fit comfortably in the corporate world that was opening up beyond LEO.

I was a fan, albeit he was the only manager I worked for who came close to physically assaulting me by grabbing my pullover during a heated discussion about what should go into Computerview, the new newspaper I produced for the company as an external PR vehicle.

I didn’t realise it at the time, but the LEO influence and, to some extent, its ethos was gradually giving way to the more corporate approach of English Electric. System 4, based on the IBM-compatible RCA Spectra designs, had been introduced to the market and was the focus of all marketing activity.

I would still be writing stories about the Post Office and its LEO 326 computers with the occasional KDF9 press release thrown in there, but System 4, rightly so, was taking all the attention.

At the same time English Electric brought in new management in the shape of Ken Barge whose impeccable credentials as a high-flying IBM salesman didn’t, shall we say, naturally fit with Caminer’s more direct hands-on management style.

A move of office from Victoria to a brand new building strung along a large part of the Euston Road – “Barge’s Folly” as it later came to be known - signalled the shift in culture.

Not long after the move and the change of name to English Electric Computers came the shock of another merger. This time it was the big one – the consolidation of the two remaining representatives of the British computer industry, English Electric Computers and International Computers & Tabulators, into a single company, International Computers Limited, ICL.

The white heat of technology that had so impressed Harold Wilson had led to his Labour government, in the person of Tony Wedgwood Benn, brokering the marriage.

Like most mergers, it was not a marriage of equals. At one point it had looked as though English Electric would emerge as the dominant partner. In the event, it was ICT that dominated.

From an English Electric viewpoint, the merger came at the wrong point in the product development cycle. The costs and the delays involved in the launch of System 4 and its acceptance by the market placed English Electric in the weaker position. In the event, the plum jobs in the new merged company went for the most part to the former ICT managers from Arthur Humphreys, managing director, downwards.

The two sides in the merger had pursued quite different strategies from a technology viewpoint, with English Electric opting for compatible alignment with IBM and ICT preferring a non-compatible IBM strategy.

This leads to one of those fascinating what-ifs of history. Who’s to say what would have happened to the British computer industry had it been English Electric rather than ICT driving the technology forward.

From a personal standpoint, the merger was a bad one for me. I was suddenly not, as I had been with English Electric Computers, the company press officer and spokesman, which would have taken me to the Putney HQ. Instead, I was buried away in a basement office of Whiteley’s department store in Queensway in charge of PR for the ICL subsidiary companies, namely the service bureau company, ICSL, and a new company to be formed out of the supplies operations of the merged parties.

ICSL management accepted me under sufferance as they had their own man lined up for the PR role. And the supplies company didn’t inspire me much as a must-do glamorous opportunity.

In actual fact, the supplies company turned out to be a good learning curve. The brief I got from Ralph Woolf, the managing director, impressed me at the time and still does. It was simplicity itself. “You do what you want to do,” he said. “If it works out, fine. If it doesn’t, I’ll still be behind you, but you’ll be out of a job.”

So it was me who named the company Dataset, who developed its corporate identity and who launched it on the market. What happened to it, I never really knew as not long afterwards I was summoned to meet with Cedric Dickens, ICL’s communications director. A vacancy had occurred in ICLs Putney HQ and I was being offered the job of ICL corporate press officer. A weight had been lifted off my shoulders and my career was back on the track. I relished the opportunity and set to with gusto, though I have to say my ideas of PR did not always mesh with those of my corporate managers.

Cedric Dickens, a direct descendant of Charles, was one of the old school. There was a drinks cabinet in his rather spacious office, and though to my fairly certain knowledge he never indulged in working hours, his acclaimed mantra was, “A glass of champagne on the hour, every hour!”

My time as corporate press officer in Putney was busy and demanding. Computers generally and ICL, in particular, as the flagship for British technology, were always in the public eye and there was much to promote. From a PR viewpoint the job was comparatively straightforward. Interest from the media, if not exactly a given, was easy to stimulate and story lines abounded.

At the same time, however, some of the frustration I’d experienced in Whiteley’s department store basement lingered and it was not long before, in late 1969, I got, and accepted, another job offer, this one to join Honeywell’s computer operations as press officer for Northern Europe. I did feel some guilt at joining the enemy after waving the flag for the British computer industry for over three years. But I was career-minded, relatively young and the money. I stayed with Honeywell for 11 years, the last three of them running PR and advertising for Honeywell Information Systems Inc, the computer half of the Honeywell Corporation.

When I left Honeywell finally towards the end of 1980, it was to return to the UK to start up my own PR company which I subsequently built into a market-leading high tech PR specialist, A Plus Group, eventually selling the company to New-York stock exchange-listed marketing powerhouse, Omnicom, and a management group. At the time, A Plus had some 65 employees and a turnover approaching £5m.

I promptly retired at the relatively young age of 59, but, kept my interest in computers going as a voluntary trustee/director of a charity applying computer technology and its life-enhancing possibilities to the problems faced on a daily basis by people with disabilities. I changed the name of the charity to AbilityNet and helped it build from one centre in Warwick to an organisation of a dozen specialist centres operating nationally.

By this time the millennium was approaching and my career in PR turned full circle as I renewed contact with LEO through David Caminer and other former management from the old days who had joined forces, at Caminer’s instigation, to establish a LEO Foundation.

Caminer had this strong wish to see LEO’s pioneering role in business computing recognised by history. There was a danger, he thought, that others would usurp LEO’s position as the world’s first business computer and he determined to do everything in his power to see that this didn’t happen.

Personal motives played a part in this. He, after all, had played the leading role in the development of LEO software. But it was broader than this. He was out to beat the Americans again and set the record books straight.

First off there was a book – the first of several - co-authored by Caminer, Frank Land, John Aris and Peter Hermon. Next up was a broader PR campaign.

It was at this stage that I was persuaded to join the Foundation at its regular meetings at Caminer’s home close by Richmond Park in East Sheen. Caminer and his management team had decided that a key part of the PR programme was to be a major business computing conference centred around the 50th anniversary of the first operational job to run on LEO, a bakeries’ valuation job for Lyons in November 1951.

The Guildhall in London was to be the prestigious venue, the support of the Lord Mayor’s office was secured and the dates were fixed as the 5th and 6th of November 2001.

It was to be my job to develop the PR materials for the conference and to get as much media visibility as possible leading into and through the conference. Others would work on getting a top line-up of big-name speakers for the conference programme.

My first thought was to develop a theme for the conference, couched as widely as possible, and a special logo to promote it. Thus we arrived at “50 years of Business Computing” for use on all promotional materials.

These materials had then to be produced, including a press pack focusing on the LEO story. The programme itself, however, was not to dwell on the past, but rather to be forward looking. To underline this, a £5000 prize, sponsored by the National Computing Centre, was to be awarded for a paper speculating on where computing was headed over the next 50 years.

Beyond this I used my contacts to enlist the Wall Street Journal as a major sponsor of the conference – quite a coup to get America’s major business daily to support the claim of a relatively unknown British company to have developed the world’s first business computer! I took the paper’s senior technology editor to East Sheen to meet with Caminer, resulting in a major feature on the LEO story, and the paper also ran a series of free ads promoting the conference.

I also recruited my former PR company, on a pro bono basis, to assist with the mechanics of information distribution and the lobbying of journalists.

In the event – and at a time when the conference business in general was in the doldrums - the conference attracted an audience of some 240 people and a great deal of media coverage.

There were many other initiatives undertaken by the LEO Foundation over the next decade to promote the LEO story – too many to cover in this summary paper – and my involvement continued.

One, in particular, however, does rate a mention, namely a 60th anniversary media event hosted by the Science Museum in November 2011. A small tweak to the 50th anniversary logo meant we could use it again. And the same applied to the press materials.

The press duly turned up to hear essentially the same story and to give it further widespread visibility. The Science Museum, moreover, was in the process of a major overhaul of its computer and communications gallery, resulting ultimately in LEO being featured in its new displays.

The 60th anniversary Science Museum event was notable for one other reason. It was co-sponsored by Google, another PR coup matching the earlier Wall Street Journal sponsorship.

Here again we had a market-leading US organisation – in fact, their foremost technology company – paying court to the LEO story.

The Google contribution was substantial, involving their whole London-based external communications team, and including the production of a very professional promotional film. Later on this led to a public lecture extolling LEO at the London School of Economics by Eric Schmidt, Google’s worldwide boss no less

In many ways it was PR job done!

And shortly after this event, the LEO Foundation, was dissolved as a separate charity, and its remaining assets and its PR baton passed to its sister organisation, the LEO Computers Society, a membership group of former LEO employees.

I’m still involved, but now mainly in an advisory role. Occasionally, I get hands-on again, but sadly of late this has mostly involved contacts with obituary editors!

The LEO story, much like the Windmill theatre in London during the war years, never closes!!

A more extended version is archived in Dropbox at:


Abstract: Maurice Bonney was a mathematician who had early experience of working with LEO as head of a group of programmers involved with aerodynamic calculations for missile technology working in the British aircraft industry, and using LEO as a bureau facility. Later in his career he worked for Renold Chains on their LEO III as chief programmer. He subsequently joined academia In Operations Management finishing his academic career as Professor of Operations Management. He spent much of his academic career working on Computer Aided Design producing significant innovative research.

He has written a substantial memoir about his career including his LEO experiences. The memoir, still undergoing revisions, is stored in the LEO Dropbox archive, https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Maurice+Bonney+memoir.doc&qsid=53814489983096573199242543471538&query=maurice+bonney&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

See also obituary of John Denys Neale above.


I worked only briefly for Lyons doing Time and Motion Study at Cadby Hall. It was in fact an interim job as I  resumed my degree work at London University. I was making the most of a grant to study after wartime service as a navigating officer in the Merchant Navy. I got to know most of the departments at Cadby Hall, including T&M on the swiss roll line that you mentioned. I also did some studies at the Coventry Street Corner House. This was to determine the average time spent in the Brasserie ;  this was done by simply counting the numbers going in, and those coming out , over a period of time .   I remember a somewhat hilarious moment in the ice cream factory when a stainless steel overhead pipe carrying the liquid  ingredients became disconnected and poured a fair amount over the foreman.  

The overall impression I had of operations at Cadby Hall was great efficiency. The main point of the T&M work was to get control , by knowing the man- hours required to produce the various items. I think that efficiency was the main driving force behind Leo , was it not ?     I did not have any direct connection with Leo, I was told that there were some people from Birmingham University working on it.  I have always tried to impress on people the remarkable achievement of the first commercial computer being developed by a food company, and by the lead that this should have given the UK  in that science. I feel that Lyons should have persisted in being in the computer business and given government support.  I know from personal experience how little support was given to new technology.  In 1971 I had a small electronics company , in that year Intel produced the first microprocessor (the  4004)  we used this to produce the first desktop computer in the same year. Unfortunately in spite of getting orders from UK and abroad, and being  used in commerce ,  lack of adequate finance killed it off. https://www.dropbox.com/s/tjlxl5xtiyd8p0d/John%20Edwards%20Reminiscence.docx?dl=0

I was born in on 18th April 1937 a true Londoner within the sounds of Bow Bell, did my National Service between 1955 and 1957 at the RAF Air Radar School as an RAF Radar Theory instructor, and then studied at Jesus College, Cambridge for the Natural Science Tripos Part 1, followed by the Economics Tripos Part2, graduating in 1960.

I joined LEO after Cambridge. The Careers Advice fellow at Cambridge said that my Natural Science and Economics degree together with my Electronics experience in the RAF suggested I should try for a job in the nascent Business Computer industry, so I had interviews with ICT, IBM, NCR, and LEO. LEO was the standout option, due to the recruitment process whereby we were given a lesson on some basic machine coding and then set a problem to solve by writing a program. This gave an insight into what the job would entail, unlike the others which were basically a simple form of IQ test.

I did receive offers from all four – though the non-LEO ones were for punch card processing rather than computing. It was an easy choice, and I joined LEO in September 1960, as a trainee sales consultant. My first task was to rewrite a payroll data vet program for Tate and Lyle on the LEO II/1 bureau at Cadby Hall, though I was based at Hartree House. The rewrite was necessary as the program’s many modifications had made it too big for II/1’s massive storage capacity of 2,000 words – ie 1K bytes!! Happily, the rewrite was a success, and I learned the value of constructing a comprehensive set of test data to ensure the program could cope with all eventualities.

I then moved into Frank Land’s Consultancy team, under Mike Jackson, to work on the Renold Chains project. I remember the concern of their management team about this new-fangled idea – “Will we still be able to make chain?” was a frequent query at progress meetings!

I learned how to write Job Plans the LEO way, with flow charts etc, and the value of studying what the client needed to be done, as opposed to a “One system fits all” approach to tendering and project implementation. I also enjoyed analysing the LEO III sort program, in order to produce a ready reckoner for calculating how long the sort would take for different input variables.

I worked on many interesting projects under Mike and, later, John Aris and Doug Comish. These included Post Office Premium Bonds, Stewart and Lloyds, Shell Mex BP, Manchester Corporation, HM Dockyards and many other Government Departments. I remember our contacts at the Treasury were a Mr Alcock and a Mr Balls, which I hope did not represent the government’s views on our efforts. There was also a memorable two weeks in Prague at the Communist bloc Computer Exhibition in 1966, on the EE-LEO stand under Ralph Land, and it is good to see both Frank and Ralph at the LEO reunions.

My visits to Shell-Mex BP being driven by Mr Caminer, and to Renold Chains in Manchester in Mike Jackson’s Austin Healey Sprite, were particularly memorable if rather hair-raising. It was always good to arrive!

I shared an office at Hartree House with Ninian Eadie and Mike Gifford, both of whom had stellar careers LEO, and I also met LEO II Chief Programmer Susan Finch, my wife now for 55 years and counting.
As LEO III activity increased, and later System 4, I became Defence Sales Manager under John, but I fear without much success, and my last post before the ICL merger was as Government Sales Dept Systems Manager. ICL then made me Regional Systems Manager South for Doug Comish’s Local Government Sales Division, which meant working at an old ICT office in Beckenham. This was a two-hour commute, so when a Computer Systems Manager job came up in Cockfosters, 5 minutes from my house, I left ICL in autumn 1969 and began the second phase of my career, which ended as Director of Strategic Planning for TSB Retail Bank Division.

I retired in 1992, and my best memories are the early days at Hartree House, working alongside fellow graduates and professionals, doing a job both innovative and exciting, whilst also enjoying a vibrant social life with some colleague or other throwing a party nearly every weekend. LEO was truly a ground-breaking project, and I am very proud to have been involved. When people ask me “What did you do?” on the golf course, I always tell them about LEO and what it meant for the future of British business management.


John Simon Florentin, Computer Operator

I used to work on Leo III's at Shell Mex's computer centre in Hemel in about 1965-67. I thought I had better write something about this before I disappear for good.

They had two of these machines that were to us exactly the same. All this was on the lowest level of the building where it crossed the bottom end of Marlowes in the centre of Hemel-Hempstead. This building has since been replaced.

These machines were run 24 hours a day Monday to Fridays. There would be two teams of about 4 operators on each shift, one for each machine. The only other persons around on the night shift would be someone in charge of the whole shift, the cook to feed us and a person who was the magnetic tape librarian and the engineers. On the night shift the operators would be fed at about 12.00 at night and the computers would be handed over to the engineers who would do whatever maintenance was necessary. They frequently did not use there allocation of time and it was possible for anyone who wanted to, to run their own programs.  I think one machine was handed over to the engineer for an hour then the other for an hour. When the operators were not working or eating one popular pastime was playing cribbage. On the end of the week night shift there would be a very large sort that took most of the shift. But when it finished everyone went home early.

Each machine had eight tape drives (no discs) These would be four on two channels - so the source files would be read in from two drives on one channel and output to two other drives on the other channel. The source file would be on about 10 tapes.

This meant that one person would be working almost by himself juggling these tapes all night. On top of this, every now and then the tapes containing the current partially sorted file would be saved just in case a re-run was needed. During a large sort like this the machine could run up to two other programs 

All programs had to be typed onto paper tape and then read in.

I think the words in the memory were 48 bits long. One or two of these were parity bits as operators would get SPF's on the console denoting a store parity failure.

It was said these machines had a floating point option fitted.

The control store was in a box about 1ft cube. Inside was a three dimensional array of fine wires with very small cores at what appeared to be random points.

The paper tape reader was made by Elliot but the paper tape punch was made by Teletype. The printer was made by Anelex. There was also a card punch and reader. There might have been a reader for reading forms where boxes were selected by drawing a line through them (Editor: Lector or Autolector). The whole machine was made using transistors except in the tape drives, TM2's made by Ampex.  Thyratrons were used to control the roller used to press the tape against the drive. The density of the bits on the mag tape was such that we had a gadget with a sort of fluid magnetic liquid in it such that individual bits could be seen.



It all started when Wendy Craig woke me up with “A Cup of Tea and Lyons Tea Shops” ……

I was dozing on the settee when I became aware of LEO on the screen and Wendy Craig uttering the words Lyons Electronic Office.

Acronyms, acronyms … they are a part of everyday life and the acronym LEO reminded me that in 1963

I chanced into the world of computing when my first job was as a Computer Operator for Shell Mex and BP on their new LEO 326 machines in Hemel Hempstead. What an introduction, right at the cutting edge of the brave new world! 1024 words of 40 bit memory, made up of a matrix of magnetic rings each threaded on three wires which made it look rather like a thread-bare tapestry on a plastic frame about 12 inches square. You could SEE the bits in each WORD.

Sept 63…… Love, love me do

A wonderfully air-conditioned room with two LEO 326’s: each with 8 tape decks, 2 paper tape readers, a paper tape punch, card reader, card punch, two printers, main console and Engineer’s Control panel. The place was jammed by trolleys filled with the input for the jobs - mag tapes to read, some work tapes for the sorts, mag tapes for output into the next job and paper tape with daily sales tickets to be read by the Elliott Readers. This tape was punched from the handwritten dockets sent from the depots where the road tankers filled up with diesel or petrol.

I remember we had one operator on Mag Tapes, one on Peripherals, one on Buttons.

The cry rang out - “Allocate mag tape on Channel 2 Route 2: Printer on 6/1: Paper Tape output on 7/1” The job started and the P/T began to fly through the reader into a large metal bin. Mag tapes inched forward, reports printed out, reel after reel of P/T filled the bin. Don’t lose the end – it’s all got to be rewound in case the job fails or the tape needs to be dibbed.

The jobs failed sometimes due to mis-punches in the P/T so out with the dibber and the black-tape to re-punch a character or two. One day a reel stopped repeatedly just after a splice point, the data prep girls had joined two reels together. However the second tape had been turned over and joined upside down to the first one. The sprocket holes seemed to match but the 2-track side had been joined to the 3-track side and carefully trimmed to make a neat splice so it looked like the 5-track tape was supposed to look.

Another day came the words – “I bet you can’t hit the big red EMERGENCY STOP on the Engineer’s panel from here with that reel of black and sticky”…. Zooom……Ooops……. Silence except for “You’ve won the prize, Jim!” Then the problem was how to doctor the console log to cover up the re-run time.

July 64…. Please, please me

The task now was to learn Assembler, then CLEO for writing programmes. Wow, a step up the employment ladder. The DSR – Dealer Site Record -with filling station information covering the number of pumps, A-road or B-road, car dealership, gallonage for the storage tanks, throughput per week, location and so on. Did you know there are even waterside filling stations for barges? Then began my introduction to a look-up table to check the map reference was correct for the site. It was planned to use this to work out the best road route for the tanker from the depot to each filling station and back to the depot – this was leading edge use of computers and might save money. The edge of the whole country was set up in map references so garage could be mistakenly put in the sea somewhere! In fact this routing idea was too heavy on computing calculation and, anyway, the tanker drivers were the experts on minimising the road miles. Development deferred!

Oh, the elapsed time it took to get a compilation and test of the programme back from the machine! One turn round every three days only to find there was a simple coding error. There were too many programmers, too many mistakes and too much operational work for the hours in the day. But the LEOs proved their worth and SMBP’s profitability rose.

Sep 65 … What’s new Pussycat?

I bade farewell to Hemel and enrolled on the Computer Science degree at Hatfield, which had 2 periods of 6 months working in a business during the 4-year course. But now the computer (I hesitate to use the word) was an Elliott 803B, all paper tape and not a mag tape to be seen. However it did have long-life plasticised paper tape from which to load the operating system! Output had to be via paper tape and then printed via a Teletype. Still I learned a lot. At the start of year 2 it was back to Hemel for 6 months commercial experience working on another programme. All acronyms were related to the sales and delivery world of the oil industry in the UK. Then other languages, FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol and more needed to be mastered.

Mar 1968 ….. Come on baby light my fire…..

..I spent time somewhere else…. NO, not at Her Majesty’s Pleasure!

Aug 1969 ….. Zebedee time

EELM had lost the sales battle to Univac at the Shell site. The machines had changed to become Univac 1100’s with the FASTRAND storage device holding an infinite amount of information so you wouldn’t need to store information on mag tapes anymore….. wait a moment, what was that saying about systems expanding to fill the available storage? We were soon back using mag tapes and there were too many programmers developing too many programmes and too many operational programmes to run in the available time.
What goes round comes around, things don’t really change do they…..? Which brings me in a roundabout way to the time I witnessed Real Magic. The office block had a magnificent view of the junction where six roads met. A scaffold tower went up in the middle, six large white blobs appeared at the end of each road and many concentric circles were drawn. At five minutes to four o’clock the High Priest climbed the Tower holding a megaphone. Work stopped and our windows were crowded with baffled observers. His yellow-jacketed assistants hovered on the kerbs and at precisely 4pm they leapt into action to make a Magic Roundabout. Two lanes each way and six mini-roundabouts later it soon slowed the traffic to a crawl but after a few days the locals became accustomed to it and they zoomed round. In at road 1 go left to road 2 or 3, it’s quicker to go right to 5 and 6, but which way to road 4? … end of my SMBP involvement….

Worked in the Johannesburg Bureau from 1964 until 1986 when I moved to the then holding company. Originally we were part of the Rand Mines Group of companies. The mining houses were our main customers for whom we ran payrolls, stores and share transfers. For full reminiscences see https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/John%20Godwin%20brief%20bio.doc?role=personal

I notice that you have an error regarding the attribution of II/6.  The Government Pensions activity never had their own machine, having used one of other of the LEO-owned machines that operated as a service bureau. (Editors note: Goodwin’s assertion cannot be sustained as a number of LEO Computers Society members including commissioning engineers tell of visiting the LEO II/6 at the Ministry of Pensions offices in Newcastle. Geoff Pye - see Oral History gives an account of working on MPNI LEO II/6 in Newcastle)

When I went on my programming course at Whiteley's , we were presented with a list that detailed the owners & locations of the LEO computers; that list omitted II/6, & in response to our enquiries about that, an evasive reply advised us that the presenter was not able to disclose that (so of course we all knew where the machine had been deployed). That machine was actually purchased by another Government activity - the Foreign Office, for one of their activities whose existence was never disclosed; that machine was actually located at Cheltenham, & certain of our engineers were required to work on that machine as required.  I never heard of the fate of that machine, but I expect that it was simply scrapped - like all the others & no mention if it is included in any information published by Bletchley Park (it took over the work of the 11 Colossus machines). (Perhaps it's still there?)

It was quite amazing just how much work those machines could achieve, even using punched-card for input & output of master files (some using pure binary), supported by a room full of ancillary punched-card appliances (sorters, collators, punches & interpreters + an IBM 407 tabulating machine - that I programmed using huge re-wirable plug-boards!  Modern machines seem to be no more efficient, due to the increased bit usage plus masses of bloatware, & general incompetence of system designers & programmers.  Our programmes were coded to run using pure-binary code, but the compiler would accept decimal input & convert to binary for execution, but I had to decode the binary & perform modifications by 'patching' in binary.

I worked on our LEO until it was replaced by an IBM 1410 in November 1963, & I supported & worked on a series of other machines until 2000 C.E. when I accepted early retirement, but continued working as a consultant - even to the present day.  Our replacement machine was eventually replaced by a Honeywell 2200 + a 120, in a dishonest attempt to gain the company's business by a bunch of fraudsters, since the machines were rip-off's of the IBM 1410/7010 &c., & the software merely stolen directly; compiling a programme in Cobol, resulted in a fatal error unless the computer used was declared to be an IBM 1410 or 7010; that machine got thrown-out prior to launch, when it was found that it was not up to the claimed performance, & would take 28 hours per day to run the existing workload then currently performed on the IBM 1410; we replaced the IBM 1410 with an IBM 360-50, running in IBM 7010 emulation mode; I wrote the Post Mortem programme for it!, & spent many week-ends running both new & old machines concurrently 24 hours per day, unassisted & unaccompanied, to develop new programmes for our entire Accounting systems; people would have a fit nowadays, if anyone attempted that! The above account is archived in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/John%20Goodwin%20reminiscences.docx?role=personal

Valerie Grose   I had the somewhat dubious distinction of being the first girl in London to complete the Gold level of the Duke of Edinburgh's Scheme (only because I was in the first intake of girls to start when it was introduced). On the photograph I am showing Mr & Mrs Simmons the work two younger girls are engrossed in leading to the Bronze stage.   It was divided into four sections:  Service to the community, Adventure, Hobbies and practical skills.  Under hobbies I spotted driving a car and asked my manager what that entailed as few had a car at the time.  Please laugh (or not) but a man was paid to take me out on Saturday mornings, in a company car, to teach me.  No matter how long it took: the objective being for me to pass the test.  I made my way to Cadby Hall to meet George, plus car, and then I drove to my home in Ealing where my mother had coffee and buns ready for us.  George had a cigarette and after chatter together I drove back to CH.  We spun it out for about six months and I then passed.  Although I went to work everyday with only two weeks holiday, that company was pretty good to me.  What a privilege to have had my office (when eventually promoted to senior secretary) opposite that of Mr Simmons with TRT's alongside.  Mr Pinkerton and Mr Caminer had offices elsewhere but were frequently seen heading to Mr Simmons' office.  One day Diane (a colleague) and I were called upon to serve tea in his oak panelled office to a group of a dozen or so gentlemen.  I was going on holiday next day (he must have been told that by someone).  He stopped the meeting, excuse me gentlemen, Valerie I understand you are going on holiday tomorrow. May I ask where to if you are going away. The Isle of Wight with my parents.  He then wished me a pleasant time.   My completion of the Award took me to the office of Sir Samuel Salmon who presented me with "The Ascent of Everest". I still have it on my bookshelf.  I met Sir John Hunt and when four more girls completed the Gold level we were invited for lunch at the House of Commons with the MP for Hammersmith, Mr Compton Carr.  So....I never was a "LEO" but had that close association with the key players.  I have spoken to one or two people at the reunions who were LEOs but who never met the "gentlemen". I feel very fortunate.  KR Valerie  I know so many widows, I feel I am now a member of "that" Society.  Had Tony have lived, his onward journey would not have been pleasant (wheelchair and incontinent) so I have to come to terms with the outcome being, for him, the kindest thing. 
My file was on the table with lots of other items/memorabilia.  I removed a couple items that I can always return.  I must say, in all honesty, at the time I had no idea of the role of Mr Simmons.  Like several other "pinstripe-suited" gentleman he was just a very senior manager to whom we younger employees showed great respect.  He was the Comptroller but what exactly that was we knew not:  just the head of the clerical workings of J Lyons, in the same way that schools have a headmaster (or mistress). I'm not entirely sure I had awareness of his LEO importance/connection.  When Messrs Caminer, Pinkerton and Thompson dashed along the corridor heading to room 23 (Mr Simmons office) I suppose we thought it was the weekly audience, such as the Prime Minister has with Her Majesty the Queen.  I was once, with another staff member, called upon to serve tea to various managers in his office.  Whilst we poured then delivered to each person, they carried on talking but Mr Simmons said, "excuse me a moment, gentlemen": Valerie I believe you are going on holiday tomorrow, are you going away?  With my parents we were heading to the Isle of Wight.  He wished me a very nice time.  His secretary, Miss Margery Slack went to Tangier.  We lesser mortals thought she was on some other planet:  way out of our reach.  Tony was with British Airways and we returned from Washington on Concorde.  Never as a young girl could I have imagined such arrangements.  Neither could I have imagined being part of these LEO gatherings in such a grandiose building as Middle Temple Hall.  I don't have photos that Mr Simmons took: just one with me explaining the Duke of Edinburgh's award to he and Mrs Simmons.  Another manager, Mavis Leopold was the wife of Michael, nephew of Reginald  Leopold who conducted the Sunday evening Palm Court orchestra programme.  A Mrs Greenall, personnel manager and Miss Buzzey, secretary to the Chief Accountant, together with Mrs Simmons all had manicures, regular hair appointments, bags and shoes like Footaballers' wives have nowadays (Several thousand per item: equivalent in those days).  Something we younger ones could only admire and dream of.  It all seems like another world but of course is the memory of the early days of my life.  The Lyons whole operation was very labour-extensive.  Would Mr Simmons nowadays have no need of his secretary and just communicate on his mobile and iPad?  Maybe the wages and salaries to so many thousands of staff (9000 at Cadby Hall, I recall) perhaps be part of the downfall of the company?  Thankfully the organisation of the time enabled me to have an interesting and fulfilling career.  I feel very fortunate.

I will do my best. The meeting started when Norman Beasley retired from Lyons in/around 1982. Norman had been a member of Lyons/Leo from the early days and was Operations manager on LEO 1, LEO II/1, and LEO III/7 before becoming Computer Consultant to the Lyons group of companies.

Norman lived in Chalfont St Giles (I think this is correct) and Peter Bird (Lyons Programming Manager) and Alex Tepper (Lyons Operations manager) would go to visit him fairly frequently. Carol Hurst, who was at our meeting, also lived nearby and had also left Lyons would join the others making a foursome. In my Lyons career I started in Operations as an operator (employed by Norman) and later became a consultant working with Norman. When Alex Tepper was promoted to Head of Computing for Lyons I became Operations manager and joined the gathering.

All Lyons computer staff are quite a close knit group and various members moved into senior positions within other companies within the group as Accountants or Head of Computing, etc. Tony Thompson, who you met, became Chief Accountant for various companies, Alan King (now passed away) became head of Lyons Maid computing. They joined in our meetings and gradually as time went on our group has continued but with varying members, as old ones passed away others came to know of us and joined. Peter Bird was the mainstay organiser as he had the most contacts. Cyril Lanch is a fairly newcomer to our group but did not step back quick enough when volunteers were sought to carry on Peter’s organising! Hopefully that explains our group, now for the LEO/Lyons feelings – difficult!

History of Lyons and computers. Lyons built a computer to do work for Lyons Electronic Office (LEO), staff working on the computers were Lyons staff. With the success of computers Lyons formed a computer company LEO Computers Ltd but the staff although working for LEO were still Lyons staff at heart. When the company LEO was sold the computers remained at Lyons and were operated by Leo staff until they chose to remain at Lyons or were replaced by new Lyons staff.

Lyons computer history goes from LEO I through Leo II/1, LEO III/7, LEO 326/46 and eventually to IBM computers. Our attachment to LEO may be explained by the fact that the original computers were still in use at Lyons long after LEO had been sold and in many instances the staff working them were the original staff. When LEO was sold the computer department became LEO and METHODS, then Lyons Computer Services Ltd (LCS My best analogy would be: If you had a daughter and she got married she would still be your daughter and a member of your family although she would have joined another family, you would continue to be proud of her. The same is how our computer department feel.

When LEO was sold the computer department became LEO and METHODS, then Lyons Computer Services Ltd (LCS), and finally Lyons Information Systems Ltd (LIS).

As you may now gather we were very proud of our heritage but so was the computer industry. We as a Computer Bureau (which we had been from day 1 of computers) strived to continue to be at the forefront of computer usage and computer and peripheral manufacturers were very keen to be associated with us offering us very competitive deals to use their equipment. Our computer department was frequently put under the microscope by the main Lyons Board as the newer family Board members felt that computing was expensive but on every occasion the auditing companies, including IBM, were in awe as to how we are able to do so much with so little and still lead the world. An example of this was back when Lyons had a fire on the Xeronic Printer in the LEO III/7 computer room. We made an arrangement with the Post Office (as it was then) to use their LEO III (overnight) in Charles House which was just across the road from us. Our shift of 6 operators replaced a shift of 20+ operators.

I cannot remember the trade magazine that did a piece on us as we were the first company to wire an entire building with various departments on different floors to use Local Area Networks linked into the mainframe. Also, one of our external customers was a large American personal tax company which had a large computer centre in the States but wanted a worldwide centre based in London. We installed a duplicate of their system onto our computer, they provided no computing staff as all maintenance etc. would be done from the States we only had two user/managers with us. Their system was difficult for their users to manage and I spent a lot of time supporting them because of the complexity of their system. Eventually I volunteered to improve it for them and wrote a few simple programs and restructured their system making it much more efficient (saving hours a day of machine and their input time). The computer staff in America were interested in what I had done and came over to see for themselves, they were amazed and the CEO asked permission to adopt our version of their system to replace their own!

My own involvement with Lyons started while I was at school. My brother, Colin, whom you met was an operator at Lyons on LEO II/1 (but employed by LEO Computers) and I used to go with him to work some evenings or when I was not at school. I was able to help operate the LEO II computer (unofficially of course) and met the engineers on the LEO III/7. When Colin moved to Hartree House I also used to go there as well and helped out on the LEO III installed there. I loved the job and it really appealed to me so when I left school (in 1966) I went for interviews at Lyons and ICT (as it was then). Norman interviewed me and offered me the job (it helped that I knew several of the staff by name which impressed him!). I worked my way up from trainee operator to Ops Manager until the closure of the company in 1991. I won’t bore you with my life history of the roles I held and of the changes in company structure that I made over the years as most of this was during our IBM period.

I hope that this gives you some insight into our little group and our attachment to LEO and why we feel a little side-lined when at the LEO Computer Society gatherings Lyons seems to be irrelevant. Maybe that is changing now but at the few meetings I went to over the years that is how it seemed which is why I have never bothered joining

Both LEO 1 and the LEO 2s were not installed in cosy, air-conditioned palaces. They went into normal office accommodation and the heat, generated by the hundreds of thermionic valves was conducted away by fans and overhead ducting. The operators were kept cool only if they could open the office windows! This could cause a number of unexpected problems:

On LEO 1 rain could be a problem. It was necessary to look outside before turning anything on. If it was raining, or snowing, the heaters in the valves needed to be turned on before the cooling fans. This built up enough heat to ensure that the water droplets sucked in were vaporised before they hit a hot glass valve cover. Failure to do it this way round would result in a series of high pitched squeaks as the glass, of the valves cracked. This would be followed by the sound of engineers swearing! If there was no rain, it was better to get the cooling up and running first.

On LEO 2 this was not a problem. The ventilation system didn’t cause the computer much in the way of problems. The computer did provide a lot of heat, most of which was conducted away by the ventilation system. However, there was still a lot of peripheral equipment and human bodies churning out heat. The only option, certainly on LEO 2/1 was to open the windows to the outside world. Mostly this worked well. However, there were times when the outside world made its way into the operating area to cause chaos. Wildlife was one such problem. The occasional visiting bird could provide some distracting entertainment but the worst problem I can remember was a swarm of small insects which came in through the open windows and settled on the paper tapes and punched cards. They got squished into the holes in the cards and tapes changing the data.

Many years later I was working at a Post Office (now BT) site where a snake made its way through one of the doors from the outside world, down a short corridor and then got stuck between the automatic airlock doors into the air-conditioned computer hall.

Note: Colin Hobson was interviewed by Marie Hicks for her book Programmed Inequality (see above) and provides one of her case studies noting the story of LEO.

Text: https://www.dropbox.com/h


Dad met Mum (Gladys Minnie Buckledee) when they both worked in the Joe Lyons accounts office at Cadby Hall in the early 1930’s. They married at Kew Green Church on 20th June 1936 and set up home in a new house at 2 Pavilion Way, Eastcote shortly after.

The war years were clearly difficult but typical for a young couple in the London suburbs with a Morrison shelter in the living room and a lodger (Aunty Enid – who would become a lifelong family friend) as company for Mum. Dad was in the RAF but his eyesight precluded him from flying duties and he ended up untypically as a round peg in a round hole operating and maintaining ‘beam-bending’ machines in Alexandra Palace. He told us stories of looking out over London and seeing ‘buzz-bombs’ coming straight at him and being powerless to do anything ! He could play the piano by ear and often entertained his unit playing the huge organ. He said that when you hit the bass notes, glass could be heard tinkling down from the broken windows!

We grew up in the family home when Dad was working on Leo in the early days. We didn’t see much of him except at breakfast and week-ends as he rarely got home before our bedtime. Sometimes he wasn’t even home for breakfast. He had a camp bed at the office and when Leo was doing all night runs he was there to do running repairs. He loved his job and often commented how lucky he was to be able to combine work with his interests.

He tried to teach us binary arithmetic with limited success. One particular memory was when he came home with one of the first ferrite core memory ‘blocks’ and explained that this brick sized object could actually store 1kB of binary information ! Compared to the mercury delay lines, this must have seemed awesome.

We did have week-ends as a family and our favourite day out was to the Lyons sports ground at Sudbury Hill. We would have a swim in the outdoor pool, practise tennis at the tennis ‘wall’ and Dad would often play cricket – he was quite a capable spin bowler.

In the ‘60’s we were in our teens and becoming more independent (difficult ??). Dad’s work became more managerial but he hated meetings and politics. When English Electric arrived there was talk of moving to Kidsgrove, but retirement came to the rescue and he took up golf. It wasn’t long before he was programming his home computer using machine code to produce the weekly handicap list !

Mum and Dad had a long and happy retirement and stayed at “No 2” until Mum died in 1990. After that Dad struggled on for a few more years but he suffered from dementia and ended up in a nursing home, where he died in 1997.

David & Paul Lenaerts – 15th April 2019

Retired Army Officer, related to Sir Joseph Lyons co-founder of J. Lyons & Co. Limited, researching history of Lyons and of LEO lectures on Lyons and LEO. see synopsis of lectures below:

Synopsis for Presentation

by Neville Lyons

The Story of LEO: The Very First Business Computer

The story of LEO is an extraordinary one. The world’s very first business computer was designed and manufactured, not by one of the electronics giants such as IBM, but by J Lyons & Co, better known for its Teashops and Corner House Restaurants, its Swiss Rolls and Fruit Pies.

After World War 2, upward trend in office costs made the company realise that some form of automation was essential for processes such as stock control and pay-roll. There was nothing available at this time to meet their needs and so, with the self-assurance and innovative spirit which had become their trademark, they set about designing and building their own computer. They produced a working model in 2 years and called it LEO, aptly standing for Lyons Electronic Office. It achieved success and publicity beyond anyone’s wildest dreams.

Neville Lyons is a relative of the company’s co-founder Joseph Lyons. The illustrated presentation will describe how the project was conceived and progressed, some of the personalities involved and how some leading industrial companies and government departments seized upon the invention and purchased later models of this new ‘electronic brain’. A video will be shown featuring some of the personalities who were involved in the early days of LEO and who are still around to tell the tale.

LEO 1 at Cadby Hall, HQ of J Lyons & Co Circa 1951

The Joe Lyons Story__ Food for Thought

Synopsis for Presentation by Neville Lyons

The Lyons Teashops, the Corner House Restaurants and, of course, the Nippy waitresses have become part of social history. But this is only part of the story…..

The power point presentation, with archival photos, stretches from 1887 to 1990’s, from the time when Joseph Lyons, a born entrepreneur, but with no previous experience of the catering industry, co-founded a company to sort out the indifferent catering at national exhibition halls of the late Victorian era. From small beginnings, the company progressed into catering for the general public and was to become the first ‘food empire’ in the world.

We shall hear about all the main activities throughout the history of the company, including those that are not so well known, such as catering for the 1901 Cup Final at Crystal Palace, the largest banquet for 8000 Freemasons at Olympia, for 15,000 guests at Royal Garden Parties and the in-house development and manufacture of the world’s first ever business computer, LEO.

The talk includes amusing anecdotes and many surprises along the way.

The speaker is Neville Lyons. There is a family relationship: his grandfather and Sir Joseph Lyons (knighted in 1911) were first cousins. Although Neville was not personally involved with the company business, this relationship was a driving force towards the research that led to his talks.

December 2018

I worked on Leo II at Cadby Hall and Leo III/1 at Hartree House as a technician.

I had become disillusioned with the Banking and Insurance industries which formed the basis of my first work experience.

I joined Leo Computers in early 1960 - I had previously been working on teleprinters at the GPO and Leo

were looking for technicians to service the paper tape data entry equipment. I was at Cadby Hall for a

for some training prior to this. I worked - among others  - with Robin Stanley Jones and I think Maurice

Blackburn was there as an Engineer at that time.

I worked shifts maintaining the peripherals and received training on the mainframe. It was an exciting

time. I remember a visit by the Duke of Edinburgh and the programmers had arranged for the mainframe

to play 'The Sailor's Hornpipe' for him!  There was a later visit by the Queen Mother who asked to see a

I left Leo in 1963 - I had just got married and my new wife's father invited me to join him in his car retail

business - big mistake! I re-joined what was now English Electric Leo Marconi ( I think) in 1967  and once

again worked at Hartree House. I became Technical Support for London and also trained on the VM

operating system. 

My manager was John Francis and  I seem to remember working with Dave Hewer another Technician.

I left what was now ICL in 1975 to emigrate to Canada - I had been trained on the then new  Cougar Solid

State Memory Systems so my skills were in demand in Canada. I worked first for ITEL where I trained on

IBM 360 systems and peripherals and then Storage Technology (STC later STK) where I became VP

Customer Service until 1990.

I retired in 2005.


Joined LEO: 1966

Role in LEO: Site Maintenance Engineer LEO III; System 4

Abstract: Born in Northern Island, father miner, mother textile worker, moved with large family to village in Northumberland, failed 11+, educated in local elementary school till age of 15 without any qualifications or certificates. One brother was an apprentice electrician at a local pit and attended Carlisle Technical College one day a week. Joe taking a peek at his brother’s books became interested and he too became an apprentice electrician at a local coal mine and attending Carlisle Technical College where he gained his ONC in mathematics and Electronics at the highest level. In 1961 opted to join RAF as a Radar technician serving part of his time in Malta. On completing his service, having acquired a love for electronics, looked for a job with computers and in 1966 was taken on by EELM to train as maintenance engineer on LEO IIIs at Radley House. Notes the quality of training he received. “I loved every minute of the course”. Moved to Scotland as site engineer on a LEO IIIs and System 4 machines. After a successful career left ICL in 1972 to work in a number of electronic companies, before setting up his own consultancy and completing an honours degree in mathematics at the Open University. Joe retired in 2009. Final words from a fascinating memoir: “For me, I think, LEO provided an environment and situation in which I could succeed in my own terms. I was doing work that I could understand, that I liked and that made sense to me. In a sense, that gave me an attitude of if I can understand and use a computer, I can learn to do anything. Thats a big thing to say about a company but I believe that, even then, it was a special sort of company with special people in it”.

Repository: Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Joe+McNulty+Memoir.doc&qsid=46282171009852707120531243657035&query=joe+mcnulty&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Abstract: Employed by Stewarts and Lloyds originally as engineer on their LEOII/3 computer and subsequently as programmer. Had received training as electrical engineer while doing extended National Service in RAF and in that capacity witnesses UK H bomb tests in Pacific Islands. Joined Stewarts and Lloyds at Corby after National Service and was transferred to help run the LEOII. Subsequently joined ICL. Has recently contributed to the Corby Heritage events commemorating, inter alia, to their story of LEO at Stewart & Lloyds. Provided two articles for the May 2018 “Legends” event, including John’s Story.

or can be obtained on request from Frank Land – f.land@lse.ac.uk – or Mike Tyzack.

One year we selected the wrong cow as the winner at the dairy show, and we did payroll for the RAF officers and once made an error that made every officer donate half his pay to RAF Benevolent Society but the problems were always fixed very quickly  and considering the amount of work being done it was good for the early time in that industry.

I installed a number of systems in the UK and we had very few delays in the scheduled handover to the customer thanks to fast response to any calls for help

I was just one of a great team that worked hard and had FUN.

Later I moved to Canada and completed my career there. https://www.dropbox.com/s/wgeg807wthgqsa5/John%20Thompson%20memoir.doc?dl=0


In 1960 I was working at MPNI in Coventry. Our payroll was put onto a Leo II inJanuary1961 but I never saw the machine. I do remember that the printer had a limited character set because instead of using the figure 8 it used capital S and instead of zero it used O.


My first programming job was at Fort Dunlop in Birmingham on Leo III/3. I started there in 1963. My first program was part of the payroll suite. I remember there was a complaint from one of the rubber workers that he'd worked a lot of overtime but only been paid just over £2:00:00. It turned out that he should have received £102:00:00 but the program only allowed for £99:19:11.There was another occasion when the payroll system crashed overnight and the Coventry factory workers were going to get their wages late. Our manager arranged that all those programming staff who lived in Coventry should go straight to the factory and help fill the pay packets. When we arrived we were not asked to show any identity but were given a case containing £2,000 in used notes and pointed in the direction of a room where we could work. The next suite I worked on was the Production Control System for aircraft parts at the Coventry factory still written in INTERCODE. We had our programs punched onto on 80 column cards. When we needed to do amendments we punched those ourselves using a hand punch. We rarely added comments as these involved multi-punches (pressing 2 or 3 keys together to get a character). In 1964 we started using CLEO for a suite of programs we wrote for Dunlop Footwear in Winsford. So then our programs were perforated onto paper tape. When we had to perforate our amendments we got to use a decent Creed machine with a QWERTY keyboard. By this time Leo III/3 was filling up with production work so Dunlop ordered another machine. I know one of our managers wanted an IBM 360 but we got the first Leo 360. By now we were getting just one amend & trial per day even though III/3 was running 24 hours a day. While we were waiting for delivery of LEO III/23 some of us had to do our trials at BOC in Swinton Manchester on LEO III/13. Each Monday we went up there and took a few mag tapes in a car. On the last week we realised we had 57 mag tapes to bring back but we did manage to fit them all in the Mini around the passengers.


In 1966 I got a job as Senior Programmer at LEO III/21. We were just maintaining an accounting system that had been written in INTERCODE. We wrote later programs in CLEO. A major incident while I was there was an infestation of iron filings. The air conditioning system had managed to spread these liberally around the computer room. The Leo III was out of action for a week while engineers wearing protective clothing vacuum-cleaned every piece of hardware. While they were doing that we used one of the GPO machines at Charles House in Kensington. Just before I left Tote I was invited to the Minerva Road factory to see the new System 4. https://www.dropbox.com/s/cndh08h4iy95lsy/Mike%20Tyzack%20Memoir.doc?dl=0

Reminiscences in 2 parts. Part 1 Life with LEO, part 2 pre and post LEO career

Joined LEO: 1960

Role in LEO: Design Engineer working with John Pinkerton

Abstract: John had a long career as a design engineer in the electronics industry, starting as electrician in the RAF after leaving School having specialised in Science and Maths. Followed up with Degree at Durham University. Later took MSc at Birmingham specialising in solid state physics and digital computing. Employed first by Lucas/CAV and then MIRA was head hunted to join the Data Recording and Instrument Company as Chief Engineer, a company associated with ICT. Left after contract dispute in 1960 to join LEO to work with John Pinkerton. Associated with a number of high level projects including a Government sponsored project on data transmission for the coming network age. Also heavily involved with the establishment of standards working with ECMA. Left LEO in 1969 as he felt the creation of ICL had emasculated the innovative LEO research team. Joined Farrington – another specialist in data recording, working partly in the USA. Finished career working in management department of Portsmouth Polytechnic. John provides a fascinating account of life as an enthusiastic design engineer as well as his appraisal of the people he worked with at LEO.

Repository: Dropbox Part 1 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Winterbottom+Memoirs.doc&qsid=73188041692784938776139646353975&query=winterbottom&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Part 2 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Winterbottom+memoirs+2.doc&qsid=73188041692784938776139646353975&query=winterbottom&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Marie Hicks Twitter message:

In 1964 the inimitable @DameStephanie_ ran this job ad in @thetimes, seeking programmers for her startup. "Anti-feminists" need not apply--plus opportunities for women who'd "retired"


about the 1950s entitled The 1952 Show in honour of the Queen’s Jubilee. Episode 5 screened on March 30th at 9.15am. It featured the LEO story with an excellent interview of Ernest Kaye. See also http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01f9qw3/broadcasts/2012/03

The section featuring LEO and Ernest Kaye can be seen on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE6TX70A3Rc

The event received wide coverage including interviews on the BBC Today programme, BBC World Service, and BBC5 Live Outriders programme. It was also covered by the Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail website. A video interview of Georgina Ferry, Ernest Kaye, Mary Coombs, Ralph Land and Frank Land made for Google was also presented. The links below include reports in media, video recordings, radio recordings, photographs.




You (UK) invented computers in both concept and practice. (It is not widely known, but the world’s first office computer was built in 1951 by Lyons’ chain of teashops!). Yet today none of the world’s leading exponents in these fields are from the UK”



of the paper’s campaign to "Make Britain Count" and in his comment on the interview repeats Eric Schmidt’s earlier notes on the role played by LEO in pioneering business computing. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/maths-reform/9288256/Make-Britain-Count-Google-head-Eric-Schmidt-supports-our-campaign.html

in December 2006, entitled The BRITISH CUPPA WITH WENDY CRAIG, and included a section on J. Lyons with its Corner Houses and Teashops. This included the story of LEO including an interview with Frank Land. See also http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/824846?view=synopsis and watch on http://www.ovguide.com/tv_episode/disappearing-britain-season-1-episode-3-the-british-cuppa-with-wendy-craig-536421

Brains which was broadcast on 30 October 2001. The programme was compiled by and fronted by Mike Hally and one of the four episodes featured the story of LEO. See http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/electronicbrains.shtml

the pioneering LEO enterprise. LEO: Making history. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/legacy/outriders/2011/11/leo_making_history.shtml

Home Movies on Sunday afternoons. The series will start on 9th November 2012 at 5.30. Several members have contributed to the series and Trevor Hughes's contribution is included in the first programme.

References to LEO will appear in the programme devoted to Work which will appear on Sunday November 30th at 5.30 pm.

Interviews with David Caminer and Peter Byford will be included with the LEO film and it will include some footage of a home movie taken by Brian Eaton in the sixties, of LEO 3 together with an interview with Brian.

An episode of Revolutionaries, a co-production of the Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley and KQED television, Published on Jul 6, 2012 by Computer History. The subject is the contribution to computing of Sir Maurice Wilkes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9DrKQ2isIk&list=UUHDr4RtxwA1KqKGwxgdK4Vg&

Live Chat NOW: LEO, the British computer that roared, 28th June 2013 (see http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/06/26/live_chat_leo/). Gavin Clarke, editor of The Register and members of the audience interview Frank and Ralph Land online in real time. The outcome is rather messy as questions and answers do not come out in a proper sequence.

at Google HQ in London 1st July 2013 to celebrate UK contribution to Information and Communications Technology. Featured the Video commissioned by Google for the 60th anniversary of LEO held at the Science Museum: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLG7EqWtzeIhXjSD4SdfPx1WQICKZMVcP4

BBC Magazine. Broadcast August 1st 2013 BBC Radio 4 at 13.45 as part of a 10 episode series  by Lucy Kellaway  entitled Lucy Kellaway's History of Office Life  and explores the changes brought about in the office by computers and this episode starts with a brief review of the LEO story including a photo of LEO I. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23509153

21st August 2013, 11.00 am BBC Radio 4.  Fronted by Martha Lane-Fox its contributors include, Mary Coombs, Dame Stephanie Shirley, Ann Moffat and Tilly Blythe.  From the 1950s to the mid-1970s in Britain, many of the pioneers of early computing were women. This was a highly skilled new world of work providing opportunities that were often in sharp contrast to the established norms of post-war British life, with new technology helping drive social change.

The series will start in the mid-1940s and finish in the early 21st century, concentrating the UK’s part in computing history between these years. The series features the story behind machines such as LEO, EDSAC, Baby and ERNIE as well as later breakthroughs such as packet switching, home computing, the BBC Micro and ARM microprocessors.
Program 2: LEO: The Electronic Office, 15th September 2015, 15 minutes. See http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b069rvb4

Reflections on Program: Peter Byford: I heard the programme in your Computing Britain series about LEO. Whilst I was delighted that you made a programme about LEO and Lyons, I was disappointed about a number of aspects about it.
You used our film and other recordings that we provided, I should also state that we hold the Copyright of the LEO film, made in 1957 as I told you. Despite this there was no acknowledgement of the Society or mention of its excellent website - see below. I looked at your website and there was no mention there either. Please correct this when you can and acknowledge the Society.
You used a number of people in your programme who were not LEO people to describe Lyons and LEO and possibly because of this you made some mistakes. The only LEO people the late Ernest Kaye, Mary Coombs and Gloria Guy were taken from recordings/YouTube that we provided to you. The Society has a number of quite eloquent speakers who are, of course, knowledgeable about LEO. We could have checked your facts corrected any errors you have made before it was broadcast. One significant error was that you stated that LEO was operational in 1956 - no it was in November 1951 when the first LEO program went operational.
I know Tilly Blythe of course, but who were that other people who were on the programme? Other than the presenter of course, they were not mentioned.

David Crawford in the Radio Times writes: “We live in a data driven world, where every industry you can think of relies on digital data, and there’s the constant threat of drowning in information overload. But why are we so enamoured of all this stuff, and how did we get to this point? Happily the ever enthusiastic Dr Hannah Fry – the Beeb’s new go to mathematician – is here to throw a lifebelt with this witty explainer. She argues that data is the bridge essential for scientific discovery, to move from problem to solution – and invaluable in the modern world. 

Along the way you’ll learn how J Lyons purveyor of fine British tea and cakes was at the forefront of the computer revolution.” The programme includes interviews with Mary Coombs and Frank Land.

Guardian Review at https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2016/jul/21/the-joy-of-data-review-who-knew-data-could-seem-so-magical-so-sexy

The Program was repeated on 18th September 2018 at 2.00 am


constructed and their many varied business uses, ranging from teashop inventories to Ford's payroll. Copyright LEO Computer Society. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8K-xbx7jBM Also held by Computer History Museum Silicon Valley http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/2260 and http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102705993

Management by its EDP Committee covering LEO I, Elliott 405 and Ferranti Pegasus. Available from Kevin Murrell at the National Museum of Computer History, Bletchley. Copy held by LEO Computers Society.


The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is the institution linking academics in the discipline of Information Systems world-wide and has a membership in excess of 3000. It selects members who have made outstanding contributions to the study and teaching of Information Systems for the LEO Award (its highest honour), named in remembrance of LEO the First Business Computer. The award was inaugurated in 1999. See https://aisnet.org/page/LeoAward

The LEO's are named after the world's first business computer. Created by the Lyons Company of the UK in 1951 and with installations in Australia by Tubemakers, Shell and Colonial Mutual. LEO was the first computer in the world to be used to solve complex analytic problems including (but not limited to) calculating disease among miners, ballistic problems of missiles, mortality rates for insurance companies, “flutter” in new aircraft, how to make rain by seeding clouds and even calculating tax tables.

The awards celebrate outstanding achievements in the full range of Business Intelligence and Information Management activities:

- to name a few. The awards are given to commercial organisations, government, and education initiatives as well as individuals who have excelled in the end-use of analytics and information management.

Governance of the LEO Awards is conducted by an Advisory Board consisting of seasoned members of the Australasian commercial, government and academic knowledge economy. The Board represent many industries and aspects of hands-on experience from the end-user community.

The awards were launched in 2010. See http://www.tbig.com.au/advisors/

The scholarship was set up to honour the achievements if David Caminer under the aegis of The LEO Computers Society . The Scholarship is funded through the generosity of the Association for Information Technology (AIT) and its Trustees, and is valued at £5000 per annum. The scholarships will be available to students who have demonstrated excellent academic potential. Applications are welcome from students who have fulfilled the admission criteria and been offered a place to study for a postgraduate degree based in the School of Engineering and Information Science. A student will only be entitled to one award during his/her period of study with Middlesex University. The first students were selected in 2011. See http://www.scholarship-search.org.uk/grants/the-david-tresman-caminer-postgraduate-scholarship-in-business-computing-supported-by-the-leo-foundation-and-ait-trust-at-middlesex-university/hc_edufin.page_pls_user_sch_dets/16180339/220707/sch_id/58303/page.htm

The 2014 award winner Tope Ashiru writes:

Receiving the Scholarship is mind blowing! It has restored me back on track and reinvigorated my career aspirations. My academic progression almost took a dark turn in the light of my father's prolonged illness which eventually took his life. I had thought it was all coming to a dramatic halt for me but the Scholarship came to the rescue! Now I can focus on finishing with a first class.”

The research leading to a PhD will investigate the role of LEO in the evolution of business computing with special emphasis on the philosophy which motivated a company in the food industry to build the world’s first business computer. The project supervisor is Dr Giuseppe Primiero of the Computer Science Department. The scholarship is funded by a grant from the AIT. See http://www.mdx.ac.uk/news/2016/03/first-ever-business-computer-to-be-researched-at-middlesex-university and http://www.mdx.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate-research-degrees/research-studentships/david-tresman-caminer-studentship-for-the-history-of-computing and tinyurl.com/j3oh6ow.

Miscellaneous and Unclassified

A copy can be found in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/s/wy3xirkff35nae9/LEO%20II%201958%20Quote.pdf?dl=0