LEO Computers Society’s guide to references and holdings related to the story of LEO.If any reader knows of any other reference please let Frank Land know at f.land@lse.ac.uk Last update 23/11/2018

Table of Contents

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Books about LEO

Books that refer to LEO



UK (and online) Archives

International Archives




LEO Computers Society: Oral History Project





Miscellaneous and Unclassified




Books about LEO

Anon (1952) The Layman’s Guide to LEO, Lyons.
The guide was circulated to Lyons executives and senior management to help them understand how computers, and in particular LEO, worked. The typewritten document is in part based on Ernest Lenaerts Development of the LEO Computer – see below. The manuscript was donated to the LEO Computers Society by Philip Bird in November 2017

Bird, P. (1994) ‘LEO, the First Business Computer’, Hasler Publishing.
Peter Bird joined Lyons when, as he says, ‘the pioneering years of computing were no more than folk history.’ Nonetheless, through his ‘talking with old-timers’ and delving through the Lyons archives, he has made an important contribution to the LEO story. Of particular value are the appendices which, inter alia, give details of the instruction codes, speeds, capacities and deliveries of the different models.

Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B.B., Hermon, P.M.R. and Land, F.F. (eds.) (1996) ‘User Driven Innovation: The world’s first business computer’, McGraw Hill, Maidenhead.
A first-hand account written by thirteen of the early users who developed the disciplines of systems engineering and put LEO to work on economic, time-dependent business applications, starting in 1951. Included is an edited version of the seminal report of the two Lyons executives who, after a tour of the early computer activity in the United States in 1947, recommended that Lyons acquire a computer of their own. Also included is a Science Museum interview with John Simmons.

Extracts from Reviews

Professor Dick Nolan of the Harvard University Business School writes in his introduction to the book:

"This story has the best qualities of a Harvard Business School case study: it is an important event in the history of the business.

It is a study about extraordinary people ... As confident executives they look outside their company, in other countries, at universities to discover new ways of doing things and fresh ideas. In their bold actions, trust shows through as a foundation in implementing their vision. Young people are given free reign and do not disappoint. A resulting exciting, challenging ‘can-do' culture is heard in the words of the people who were there."

Dr Terry Gourvish, Director Business History Unit, LSE, in LSE Business History Newssheet,

"This is a major contribution to the history of computing and computers in the UK. A full scale case study of LEO computers, written by members of the team who experienced all its trials and tribulations, it provides a fascinating insight into the development by J. Lyons & Co. of the first business computer in the UK."

Neil Fitzgerald, editor of CA magazine, in The Scotsman, Business section. .

"Can-do culture, empowerment, user-driven innovation, business process re-engineering, flat organisations, quality, short lines of communications and decision making. We are led to believe that these are radical, modern ideas. However, a book that has come into my hands shows that they were being successfully harnessed almost half a century ago, to create the most significant event ever in business management.

The editors ... tell the story of how they and others built and put to work the world's first business computer. This did not happen in California's Silicon Valley, but at Cadby Hall, the ... west London premises of Lyons.

An important facet was that they felt they should always take a strategic view of the whole function to be computerised and make recommendations for improvements before going to work."

Dr John Pinkerton, review in ICL Technical Journal

"Telling the story of how the foundations of data processing were laid from 1949 onwards has evidently been a labour of love.

This is a work of scholarship but eminently readable nevertheless. It will be seen as a major contribution to the history of business computing; it is strongly recommended for anyone already working in or studying to enter the field of IT."

Michael Braithwaite, Deloitte, Touche, European Journal of Information Systems.

"I commend this book to a wide audience. To the general reader it stands as a very well written and exciting account of technological innovation. To the business school student it presents a remarkable story of technological success that, as a commercial venture was flawed, perhaps by factors beyond the control of the players."

Professor George Mitchell, review published Journal of Operational Research Society..

"This fascinating book tells the life story of LEO. Rather over a third of the book is the historical record, carefully researched and engagingly written up by Caminer. The rest is largely personal memoirs of those involved in the early days, including accounts of several innovative applications. The whole is rounded off by an evaluation by Aris. The book's value is enhanced by the style of writing. Those who worked in LEO, especially in its earlier days, including many of the book's authors, exercised an influence on the development of business computing in the UK quite disproportionate to their numbers.

I found this book a good read and one which exited several strands of thought. Although its main market will be among scholars and students of IT and business studies, it deserves a wide readership in the OR community."

John Perkins, National Computer Centre Newsletter,

"The book is a fascinating adventure story in which the dynamics of an extraordinary group of people made the seemingly impossible happen."

Professor John Ward in the Journal of Strategic Information Systems.

"The story of that first business computer: Leo - Lyons Electronic Office - is told in this book. Whilst it is history, reflection on what was achieved and not achieved and why still has many lessons of relevance to the successful use of IT today - we seem to be learning painfully and slowly!.

.... a review by John Aris of what of what he calls the ‘LEO approach' - an integrated combination of technology innovation, application and consultancy designed to enable significant business improvements from computer use in a range of situation. Many of these applications would be called ‘business process redesign' in the 1990s!

The wide range of contributors provide many different perspectives on what happened and views on why things evolved the way they did. It is a set of memoirs - often very personal ones - of a time when Britain could be said to have led the world in the application of this new technology.

... it is a book that we should all be grateful the authors took the time and trouble to get together and write. It is a story of extraordinary achievements, by a talented team..."

I. A. Lovelock in Management Accounting.

"This book is a first-hand account of how this astounding innovation came about. It is a flesh and blood, warts and all story related by the participants, brimming over with the same enthusiasm that enabled the unlikeliest of organisations to lead the way into the future that we are all familiar with today.

It concludes with different strands coming together to provide the essence of the LEO credo of comprehensive, integrated, secure, action stimulated implementations.

Professor T. Brady, Brighton University

“As well as being a fascinating piece of historical writing the book provides food for thought in the supposedly computer literate world of the 21st Century. Spectacular computer disasters such as the London Stock Exchange's Taurus system have left us with rather jaundiced perceptions about computer projects. Why were Lyons better at implementing computer systems?

One major factor was that before automating business processes the Lyons team ensured that they were well understood and ready for computerisation. Long before the prospect of computers came along, Lyons had established a systems research office with the brief to constantly search out how improvements might be made to the business by changing processes.”

Ferry, Georgina (2003) ‘A Computer Called LEO’, Fourth Estate, London.
‘LEO and its creators deserve their place in history not because of what it was, but because of what it did. For LEO was the first computer in the world to be harnessed to the task of running a business.

A paperback edition was published in 2005, by Harper Perennial

Caminer H., editor (2016) ‘LEO remembered: by the people who worked on the world’s first business computers’, LEO Computers Society. Collection of reminiscences, testifying to a sense of collective endeavour among the LEO community.

Lenaerts, E. (1948) ‘Development of the LEO Computer: Brief Description of EDSAC’.
Peter Bird collected and had bound (September 1992) the photocopies of the handwritten description of EDSAC compiled by Ernest Lenaerts in October 1948, with contributions from David Caminer, Derek Hemy, Thomas Thompson and others. It formed the basis of a larger publication titled The Layman’s Guide to LEO – see below. The volume was donated to the LEO Computers Society by Philip Bird, November 2017.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1962) ‘LEO and the Managers’, Macdonald, London.
The paperless office concept of the Lyons Comptroller, whose support was vital to the LEO project

Books that refer to LEO

Ahmed, Haroon (2013) ‘Cambridge Computing - The First 75 Years’, TMI Publishers.

Anon (2011) ‘ICL Mainframe Computers’, Books LLC.
This 19 page pamphlet gives a brief description of a number of UK designed and manufactured computers including the LEO range, pages 18 and 19. All the texts are lifted from Wikipedia entries and include some errors made in these entries.

The history of ICL is synonymous with the history of the British computer industry. ICL was formed by a series of mergers in response to the increasing market dominance of the large American corporations, particularly IBM. The struggles between these two giants and the inherent problems and implications of competing with US multi-nationals are examined in detail in Campbell Kelly's wide-ranging study. At the time of writing in the late 1980s, the author was given unrestricted access to ICL archives and his lucid account of the company, its set-backs and successes makes for a compelling and informative read. This book, which was Winner of the Wadsworth Prize for Business History (1989), will be of great interest to anyone involved in business or the computing industry.

Chapter 6 presents an anthology of quotations about LEO, mainly from LEO personnel.

Grindley, C.B.B., (1975), Systematics, McGraw-Hill, New York. Based on his experience working with LEO, Grindley sets out a ‘language’ for defining information systems.

Jones, Capers (2014) ‘The Technical and Social History of Software Engineering’, Addison-Wesley. Capers Jones’s book is a monumental history of computers and computing with a prime focus on ‘software engineering’. Jones has an introductory chapter which deals with the pre-history from the beginning of civilisation to 1930, then chapters dealing with each decade up to 2013. His chapter on the 1950s includes the LEO story, brief (pages 85, 86, in a 452 page book), but giving some weight to the place of LEO in computing history.

Lavington, Simon H. (1980) ‘Early British Computers: The Story of Vintage Computers and The People Who Built Them’, Manchester University Press, http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/EarlyBritish.html#TOC
Chapter 13, pages 68-77, gives a brief history of LEO and English Electric, including a timeline.

Lavington, Simon, (2011), Moving Targets: Elliott-Automation and the Dawn of the Computer Age 1947 – 67, Computer History, Springer. Although the book is primarily a history of Elliott-Automation it has a number of references to Lyons and LEO.

Lavington, Simon (ed.) (2012) ‘Alan Turing and his Contemporaries’, British Computer Society. 111 pages, summarises the background to all the early British stored-program projects
from 1945 – 1951.

Lean, T, (2016), Electronic Dreams: How 1980s Britain learned to love the computer, Bloomsberry/Sigma. The book includes references to LEO and its early success. See also Review by Jonathan Margolis in Financial Times, below.

Marshall, Stephen (2015) ‘The Story of the Computer: A Technical and Business History’, Kindle edition available. 592 pages the story of computing up to, but not including, the advent of smart phones. The LEO project is noted in Chapter 6, pages 198-189 and further mentions are made elsewhere such as the donation to EDSAC (Chapter 5, page 185). Reviewed by Dik Leatherdale in Resurrection Issue Number 79 Autumn 2017.

Morelli, M, (2001),Dalle calcolatrici ai computer degli anni Cinquanta, Franco Angeli, pp. 341-44

O'Regan, G. (2012) ‘A Brief History of Computing’, 2nd ed, Springer, London. Chapter 3, ‘Early Computers’, provides a brief account of EDSAC and LEO.

O’Regan, Gerard (2015), ‘Pillars of Computing: A Compendium of Select, Pivotal Technology Firms’, Springer. Chapter 21, pages 135-138, provides an account of LEO Computers Limited.

O’Regan, Gerard (2016) ‘Introduction to the History of Computing: A Computing History Primer’, Springer. For undergraduate students, Chapter 5.3, page 75, describes LEO I.

Roebuck, K. (2011) ‘Managed Print Services: High-impact Technology - What You Need to Know’, Tebbo. The book is a type of encyclopaedia including a wide range of technology topics each supplemented by a rich set of references. A short, well sourced, chapter on LEO, page 50-56, is included.

Rose, Michael (1969) ‘Computers, Managers and Society’, Pelican.
The author notes LEO amongst the pioneers and provides a brief account of the LEO story.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1970) ‘Management of change. The role of Information', Gee & Co, London.

Stern, Nancy B. (1981) ‘From ENIAC to UNIVAC: Appraisal of the Eckert-Mauchly Computers Hardcover’, Digital Press, March 16, 1981. Pages 148 -151 report on the precedence of the LEO initiative in the development of business computing.

Tatnall, Arthur (ed.) (2012) ‘Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories’, in ‘Series: IFIP Advances in Information and Communications Technology’, Vol. 387, Springer, November 2012. Chapter 2, Frank Land, Remembering LEO, pp. 22-42.

Turing, Dermot, (2018), The Story of Computing, Arcturus Publishing , London, includes a section on the Lyons/LEO place in the story of computing, and includes photo of LEO, Chapter 6, pages 106 to 110. Sir Dermot Turing is a nephew of Alan Turing, and 12th Baronet Turing. The book provides a comprehensive and readable account of the story of computing from abacus to a glimpse of how the story might develop in the future.

Various authors (1956) ‘The Electronic Office’, a collection of articles assembled by the Liverpool and Merseyside Branch of the Office Management Association following their conference in April. Includes articles by David Caminer and Oliver Standingford. Bound copy held by Hilary Caminer.


Ainsworth, B. (2013) Leo Computers in Australia in Museum Victoria Collections http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682

Agar, J. (1996) The Provision of Digital Computers to British Universities up to the Flowers Report (1996), Computer journal, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp 630-642.

Anderson, D., Delve, J. (2004) Pioneers of Payroll on computers: LEO, the Army, the Navy Dockyards and De Havilland, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, ISSN: 1058-6180.

Anon (1947-1954) LEO Chronicle, Lyons and Office Management Association. Papers of John Simmons, Reference Number: 363/S4/11, Warwick University, Modern Records Centre. The Chronicle is a diary of events and activities relating to the development and operation of LEO computing – an invaluable source. http://contentdm.warwick.ac.uk/cdm/ref/collection/leo/id/242

Anon (1949) ‘A non-technical description of E.D.S.A.C’. How the Cambridge Electronic Calculator works, J. Lyons & Co., June 1949.

Anon (1954) LEO Lyons Electronic Office, Published by J. Lyons & Co., Cadby Hall, Feb 16th.

Anon (1954) ‘Electronic Abacus’, The Economist, pp. 789-791, 13th March, probably authored by Mary Goldring.

Anon (1955) Leaflet on "Computer Training Courses", by LEO Computers.

Anon (1957) It’s Quicker by Computer: ‘LEO’ Works our Rail Distances, The Times, June 24.

Anon (1957) Political & Economic Planning, ‘The LEO Computer: a case study in the use of an electronic computer in routine clerical work’, Three Case Studies in Automation, July, probably authored by Leonard Tivey.

Anon (1960) ‘Getting to grips with computers’, The Times Newspaper, reprinted in The Times Newspaper, August 4th 2000.

Anon (1960) ‘Notes on Commissioning of LEO Automatic Office at the Ministry of Pensions’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.198, January.

Anon (1960) Advanced Data Processing, a clip from the "Engineer" for 22 July 1960, probably the earliest reference to LEO II in print, and concentrating on the microprogramming feature.

Anon (1960) Command by Magnetic Rings, a clip from New Scientist for 21 July 1960.

Anon (1960) Introducing LEO III, a clip from The Stock Exchange Gazette for 12 August 1960, announcing the development of LEO III in more general terms.

Anon (1963) EE-LEO Brochure for LECTOR System, Data Processing Journal, February, page 15.

Anon (1964), Quis LEO Aptitude test, comprising Introduction and Explanation, Instructions for giving test, the Test Itself, Correct answers’ The document as digitized by John Hoey in Australia and a copy is available from Frank Land, f.land@lse.ac.uk

Anon (1965) Daily Mail Obituary for LEO I, 9th January. Plus other items about LEO initiatives in Eastern Europe.

Anon (1967), September LyonsMail short note and photos of Lyons Managing Director Samuel Salmon viewing restart of LEO III/7 following the catastrophic fire at the Lyons computer installation. More information on the incident can be found in Peter Bird’s book LEO: The First Business Computer page 164 to 166.

Anon, LEO Computer, a useful summary of the LEO story which does need editing, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEO_(computer)

Anon, (circa 1958), LEO II at Stewarts and Lloyds, in http://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Electronic%20Computers.pdf

Anon, LEO Computers in Australia, http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682

Anon (2017), Quotation from a Director of J. Lyons, “I attended a Board meeting when for 1 hour and 59 minutes there was a heated debate about the price of a cup of tea in Teashops.
‘A rise of a penny or half a penny!’
At the end of the row John Simmons, of whom everyone was in awe, asked for a further 2 million pounds for work on Leo. Passed without debate.”

Archibald, H., (1997), Stewarts and Lloyds Steelworks, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 20, pp. 243 – 248.

Aris, J.B.B., (1997), The LEO approach an evaluation in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 27, pp.321-336.

Aris, J.B.B. (1996) ‘Systems Design – Then and Now’, Resurrection, Journal of
the Computer Conservation Society, Summer.

Aris, J.B.B., (1998), Inventing Systems Engineering, Proceedings of Conference Computers in Europe: Past, Present and Future, Kyiv, pp 33 – 46, October.

Aris, J.B.B. (2000) ‘Inventing Systems Engineering’, IEEE Annals of the History of
, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 4-15, July-September.

Aris, J.B.B., Land, F.F., Mellor, A. (eds.) (2003) LEO Conference Report, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 253-398, December.

Avery, R. (2001) The World’s first commercial computer went into operation 50 years ago in Britain. Who developed it?, The Times Supplement Tomorrow’s Today, 24 page supplement sponsored by Microsoft, pp 20-21, May 31st. Hilary Caminer holds a copy.

Behr, B. (ed.) (2014) LEO Computers Society Newsletter, Autumn, with contributions from Jessica Bradford (Science Museum), Peter Byford, Bernard Behr, David Holdsworth (Computer Conservation Society), Frank Land and Michael Storey.

Behr, B. (ed.) (2015) LEO Computers Society Newsletter, summer, with contributions from Peter Byford, Ralph Land, Norman Witkin, Neil Lamming, Gloria Guy, Bill Sant and David Holdsworth. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/NewsletterSummer2015.pdf

Bentley, R. (2003). The Teashops that ruled the IT World, Computer Weekly. Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/The-tea-shops-that-ruled-the-IT-world Based on review of Georgina Ferry’s book A Computer called LEO.

Bergin, T. J. (2007) Mainframe Computers, a listing of mainframe computer manufacturers providing a chronology of their main products, including LEO Computers and the successor companies: http://ds-wordpress.haverford.edu/bitbybit/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Lecture-9-Mainframe-Computing.pdf

Bergin, T. J (1997) User-Driven Innovation: Review, ACM Computing reviews, July, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=120073&listname=search link takes you to the login page of ‘Computing Reviews’ – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Berry, T. (2002) Lessons from LEO the Lyons, Financial Director, January 2002 http://www.financialdirector.co.uk/financial-director/feature/1742501/lessons-leo-lyon

Bidmead, C. (2011) David Caminer, creator of the first business computer, Reg Hardware, Unsung Heroes of Tech, 27th September 2011 http://www.reghardware.com/2011/09/27/heroes_of_tech_david_caminer/

Bird, P. (1990/91) LEO, the Pride of Lyons, British Journal of Administrative Management,
20,21, included is brief biography of Peter Bird on page 20. https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=&preview=Peter+Bird+Bio.doc&qsid=46938116925170346278061109775943&query=peter+bird&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Blyth, T. (2015) Information Age? The challenges of displaying information and communication technologies, Science Museum Communications Spring 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.15180/150303 The article provides an account of the setting up of the London Science Museum’s Information Age Gallery in October 2014 including the LEO exhibit.

Bradford, J. (2014) Information Age at the Science Museum celebrates LEO, in Behr, B. (editor) LEO Computer Society Newsletter: http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/2014_Newsletter.pdf

Braithwaite, M. (1998) User-Driven Innovation: the World’s first Business Computer: Review, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol.7, pp 74-75.

Brindley, H. (2008) On being employed by a computing pioneer – Leo Fantl, an account of the author’s experience working in South Africa for LEO, slapHappe, https://slapphappe.wordpress.com/2008/06/30/on-being-employed-by-a-computing-pioneer-leo-fantl/

Bringslid, M. M. (2016) 7 Ways Computers will change our lives, Blog on Eric Scmidt Presentation , LSE 14th October, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/studentsatlse/2016/10/18/7-ways-computers-will-change-our-lives/

Briscoe, G. (1994) The First Business Computer, Review of Peter Bird’s book in Management Services, February, p. 35.

Briscoe, G. (1994) Computing was a piece of cake, The British Journal of Administrative Management, February/March, p 23 and 27.

Briscoe, G. (2016) 1950s Computer Training Package, Resurrection, Issue Number 73, pp25-33.

Briscoe, G. (1967-2000) Graham Briscoe Productivity Collection Pamphlets, a collection of texts describing O&M methods and tools including flow charts, http://www.open.ac.uk/libraryservices/documents/Graham_Briscoe_Productivity_Collection_pamphlets.pdf

Bryant, A., Land, F.F., (2018), A Conversation between Frank Land and Antony Bryant, paper submitted to JAIS, 41 pages. https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/Anthony%20Bryant%20conversation%20submitted%20to%20JAIS.docx?role=personal

Byford, P., (2018), New heritage partnership to unlock important IT archive, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 58, Winter 2018, pp.25-26

Caminer, D.T. (1956) Experience of a General Purpose Computer, in The Electronic Office, a bound collection of articles assembled by the Office Management Association following their conference in April 1956. Bound volume held by Hilary Caminer.

Caminer, D.T. (1955) The Application of Electronic Digital Computers and Calculators to Accountancy, Costing and Managerial Control, Lecture to Northampton College of Advanced Technology (now City University, London). Lecture Notes held by Hilary Caminer. Also see https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=history-of-computing-uk;ca4a4c3.0012

Caminer, D.T. (1958) ‘….And How to Avoid Them’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 1, No 1, pp. 11-14.

Caminer, D.T. (1997) ‘LEO and its Applications: the Beginning of Business Computing’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 40, No 10,
pp. 585-597.miner

Caminer, D.T. (2000) Back to Basics, interview in Institute for the Management of Information Systems Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 1. Copy held by Hilary Caminer.

Caminer, D.T. (2002) ‘LEO and the Computer Revolution’, 2nd annual Pinkerton Lecture, IEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 13.

Caminer, D.T., (1997), The Story of an Innovation, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 7 – 154.

Caminer, D.T. (2003) ‘Behind The Curtain at LEO’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 3-13, April-June.

Caminer, Hilary (2016) editor, Unveiling the plaque, November 29th 2016, edited version of presentation at the unveiling of the plaque commemorating 65 years of business computing at Lyons Walk, including presentations from Peter Byford, Frank Land, Dame Stephanie Shirley and Tony Morgan, https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=Unveiling+of+Plaque+aa+presentations.doc

Caminer, H., (Editor), Behr, B., (Production), (2018), Newsletter and Review, Leo Computers Society Vol. 4, Spring 2018, pp. 1-22, http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/LeoNewsletterSpring2018.pdf
The issue includes articles by Peter Byford, John Daines, Frank Land, Lisa McGerty, Elisabetta Mori, Phillip Bird, Mike Storey, Tony Morgan, Stan Holwill, Bill Forfar, WEJ Parry, Tony Davies, Bob Stevenson.  The issue can be read or downloaded from the LEO Computers Website at http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/

Campbell-Kelly, M., (1995), ICL and the evolution of the British Main Frame, Computer Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp 400-412.

Cane, A. (2008) Teashop boffin who pioneered business computing, Financial Times, 28th June, https://www.ft.com/content/3c7bdcf0-4475-11dd-b151-0000779fd2ac

Cane, A. (2011) Perspectives: Unlearnt lessons of Leo; British pioneers wrote the script on project management in the 1950s, but no one was listening, Financial Times, 6th December, https://www.ft.com/content/7c7fc396-168d-11e1-be1d-00144feabdc0

Cann, R., (1997), The Royal Dockyards, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 24, pp. 274 – 286.

Casey, F. (1954) Lyons Electronic Office: How LEO Works, in Business: The Journal of Management in Industry, April.

Ceruzzi, P.E. (1996) LEO: The First Business Computer, Review, ACM Computing Reviews, February, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=119311&listname=search Note: this review was rated the best review in Computing Reviews for 1996.

Clarke, Gavin (2013) The Big Battle with Blue, The Register, March. A useful sketch
of LEO history based on author's reading and interviews with Frank and Ralph Land.

Clarke Gavin (2014) How Brit computer maker beat IBM's S/360 - and Soviet spies, The Register, April, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/04/09/how_english_electric_outsold_ibm_s360_cold_war/ The story of ICL and LEO success in selling computers in East Europe.

Clarke Gavin, (2013) Blighty's revolutionary Cold War teashop computer - and Nigella Lawson,
The Register, November, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/03/27/geeks_guide_leo/

Cochrane, A. (2017), LEO Operating Memories, an account of working as an operator on the Stewarts and Lloyds LEO II/3. Copy available from Frank Land and Dropbox.

Computer History Museum, From Cambridge to Café, The LEO story including brief bibliography, http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110

Coombs, M. (2003) Review: ‘A Computer called LEO’ (Ferry, G.), European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 12, Issue 4, 241–24.

Cooper, A., (2018), A Virtual LEO III. The story of LOLA the consortium of London local authorities who replaced their LEO III with an IBM 360/50 and for whom IBM produced a LEO III emulator to enable them to run legacy systems. A copy of the article is available from Frank Land, f.land@lse.ac.uk

Cooper, G. (2016) How Lyons Produced the World’s First Large Business Computer, Power Point Presentation to IET retired branch, https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Copied%20from%20old%20Leo%20interviews%20shared%20folder?preview=Cooper+IET+Lecture+2016.ppt

Cotterell, S. (2002) The day LEO roared, Project Manager Today, pp. 4-6, February.

Cummings, J.G., (2012), The Great Railway Caper: Big Data, O’Reilly Strata Conference October 2012 on Big Data. The paper gives an account of the LEO railway distancing job. http://blog.jgc.org/2012/10/the-great-railway-caper-big-data-in-1955.html

Daines, J. (2017) The LEO Computers Society Heritage Project, presentation at October 2017 LEO Computers Society Reunion at HAC London. Copies can be obtained from John Daines and Frank Land.

Daines, J. (2017) LEO, Lyons Electronic Office: The World’s first Business Computer, presentation at Cambridge Centre for Computing History November 2017. Copies can be obtained from John Daines and Frank Land.

Daziel, Billy (2015) Corby & The Electronic Brain: LEO II, pamphlet describing exhibition at the Corby Heritage Centre July/August, in memory of the Stewarts and Lloyds’ LEO II computer, the first LEO II delivered to a commercial customer, https://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Corby%20%26%20The%20Electronic%20Brain%20exhibition.pdf

Delve, J., Anderson, D. (2001) The Pinkerton Lecture, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing Vol. 23, Issue2, pp.68-73.

Douce, C. (2017) Academic Blog, report and Reflections on IT History meetings attended by author, an OU academic. Includes references to LEO, but of more general interest. https://learn1.open.ac.uk/mod/oublog/view.php?user=42396&tag=history

Duffy, J. (undated) LEO I: The construction of the world's first Business Computer, Tripod Website, http://james.duffy.tripod.com/Leo1.html. A good account of the LEO story with many photographs.

Eadie, N., (1997), The General Post Office, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 21, pp. 249 – 256.

Enticknap, N. (1977) The First Business Computer, Computer Management, pp. 10-15, June.

Espiner, T. (2011) ZD Net. LEO Computers marks 60th anniversary, http://www.zdnet.com/pictures/leo-computer-marks-60th-anniversary/

Evans, C. (1983) Conversation: J.M.M. Pinkerton, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing,
Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 64-72.

Fantl, L. (1956?) Application of Digital Computers to Chrystallography, Lecture to Northampton College of Advanced Technology (now City University, London). Lecture Notes held by Hilary Caminer.

Fantl, L., (1997), The Early Days, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, chapter 14, pp.157 – 167.

Fantl, L, (1997), Into South Africa, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 25, pp. 289 – 305.

Ferry, G. (2005) Simmons, John Richardson Mainwaring (1902–1985), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/97801986 14128.

Ferry, G. (2015) Pioneer of Business Systems “Father of Office Computing, Old Brightonians, Brighton College, http://www.oldbrightonians.com/notable-obs/business/john-simmons-bc.-1916.html

Ferry, G. (2012) David Tresman Caminer (1915-2008), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,

Forbes, J.M. (1965) ‘An Introduction to Compiler Writing’, The Computer
Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 98-102.

Fox, M.L. (2015) How technology can improve the UK, presentation at WiredWorld2015, annual conference of Wired World October 15/16th 2015, London. Printed in Observer Newspaper 18th October 2015, main section pages 32.33 See http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/18/martha-lane-fox-technology-women-computing

Galliers, R. (ed.) (2003) Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 12, No. 4, December. The Issue is devoted to the 2001 conference at the London Guildhall celebrating the 50th anniversary of the rolling out of the world’s first business application at the Cadby Hall headquarters of J Lyons and Company on their LEO I computer. URL http://www.citeulike.org/journal/els-09638687

The contents of the issue are as follows:

Aris, J.B.B., Preface, pp 253-254

Baskerville, R., The LEO principle: perspectives on 50 years of business computing, pp 255-263

Cox, G., Business computing 2001-the state of the art, pp 285-294

Mowery, D., 50 Years of business computing: LEO to Linux, pp 295-308

Yapp, C., Conference sponsors' panel: what have we learnt in 50 years? pp 309-320

Shirley, S., Panel: social and economic consequences of business computing and public policy,

pp 321-330

Ashworth, J.M., Knowledge and digital information, pp 331-337

Hudson, R., Panel: crystal ball, 2001-2051, pp 339-353

Ein-Dor, P., The world and business computing in 2051: from LEO to RUR? pp 357-371

Amaravadi, C.S., The world and business computing in 2051, pp 373-386

Schell, E.H., The world and business computing at mid-century, pp 387-395

Gibson, A. (1991) IAM – seventy five innovative years, a short history of the IAM, 1915-1990, Modern Records Centre Warwick University, MSS.337/4/66/1.

Gibson, A. (1995) The next five years, additional material to celebrate 80 years of the IAM, Modern Records Centre, Warwick University, MSS, 337/4/ 66/2.

Gibson, A., (1991), British Journal of Administrative Management (1991), 75th Anniversary Issue: Copy held as manuscript text at John Rylands Library, Manchester University in box GB 133 NAHC/LEO/A6 http://archives.li.man.ac.uk/ead/html/gb133nahc-leo-p1.shtml
The contents include:
Simmons, the visionary, April 1991. O&M and Simmons, November 1991. The contents of the collection can be viewed by application to the librarian.

Gibson, R.P. and Lenaerts, E.H. (1960) Maintenance Procedures on a Computer, proceedings
of joint
BCS/IEE Conference, January. The paper reflects both LEO I and LEO II experience.

Glass, R. (200T of the ACM, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp 25-26. The paper refers to the first LEO applications.

Gluckstein, I. M. (1959) G.W. Booth, Obituary, Lyons Mail, October.

Godwin, C. (1986) Landmarks: How the king of the jungle grew up on tea and cakes,
Computing, April 23rd.

Gosden, J.A. (1960) ‘Market Research Applications on LEO’, The Computer Journal,
British Computer Society, Vol. 3, No 3, pp. 142-143.

Gosden, J.A. (1964) “The Operations Control Center Multi-Computer Operating System.”
Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery,
E2.2-1-E2.2-9. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Gosden, J.A., (1997), Toward System Software, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 16, pp. 185 – 206.

Graham-Cumming, J. (2012) The Great Railway Caper: Big Data in 1955, presented at Strata Conference, London, October 2nd.

Greening-Jackson, T. (2008) LEO I and the BR. Job, including transcript of interview with Roger Coleman, programmer in charge of railway distancing job, https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=%E2%80%A2%09Greening-Jackson,+T.+(2008)+LEO+I+and+the+BR.+Job&rls=com.microsoft:en-GB:IE-Address&dcr=0&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0yZHO5c3YAhWFGOwKHQhsDzoQsAQINA&biw=1600&bih=675#imgrc=vj9Ru_saGx8OgM:&spf=1515600989252

Haigh, T. (2007) Chris Date: Oral History, Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley, California pages 7-9, Transcript: http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/access/text/2013/05/102658166-05-01-acc.pdf

Harvey, F. (2001) The lion that failed to roar, LEO, Financial Times, August 20th.

Hayes, J., (2018), Reconstructions of early electronic computers are giving us new insights into how they worked and the software that ran on them, E&T Magazine. An account of the various efforts to reconstruct early computers including a brief history of the role played by LEO in early business computing. https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2018/04/reconstructing-the-early-electronic-computers/?utm_source=Adestra&utm_campaign=New%20EandT%20News%20-%20Automation%20FINAL%20-%20MEMBER&utm_medium=Newsletters%20-%20E%26T%20News&utm_content=E%26T%20News%20-%20Members&utm_term=https%3A%2F%2Feandt.theiet.org%2Fcontent%2Farticles%2F2018%2F04%2Freconstructing-the-early-electronic-computers%2F

Hendry, J. (1986) The Teashop Computer Manufacturer, Business History,
Vol. 29, No 8.

Henin, S. (2003) LEO: II computer in una tazza da tè, La Altra Scienza, p. 102.

Hermon, P.M., (1997), A Reminiscence, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 17, PP. 207 – 220.

Hinds, M.K. (1981) 'Computer Story', Meteorological Magazine, Vol. 110, pp 69-80.

Holdsworth, D. (2013) Software, a progress report on the LEO III Intercode and Master Routine Emulator, pp 5-6 Resurrection, Issue 63, Autumn, and Issue 64, p.7
(2014) Resurrection, Issue 65, http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/CCS/res/res65.htm;
Issue 66, p.9 and Issue 67, p.5/6, http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/CCS/res/res67.htm
(2015) Resurrection, Issue 70, p.6, http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/CCS/res/res70.htm
Holdsworth notes: "The complexity of the LEO III software systems continues to amaze me, especially the way in which the LEO veterans take it in their stride."

Holdsworth, D. (2015) A LEO III: 21st Century Hindsight, Resurrection Issue 70, pp. 21- 30,

Holdsworth, D. (2015) LEO III Software Rescue, Resurrection, Issue 71, David notes “All of a sudden, it works”, pp.8-9.
http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res71.htm The software can be accessed at http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoCode/LeoIIIdemo2.zip

Holdsworth, D. et al (2017) On-line Leo III User Manuals, http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoMan/Manuals.htm

Holdsworth, D. (2015) History of the Leo III Software Preservation Project: Blow by Blow Account, http://sw.cc5 - 13s.bcs.org/leo/BlowByBlow.htm, Draft Account.

Hudson, R.L. (2001) David Caminer analyses what went wrong with one of the world’s first computers, the LEO, Convergence, the Wall Street Journal’s magazine of Digital Business, Vol VII, No 3.

I Programmer (2010) LEO – Lyons Electronic Office: World’s first business machine – a short but comprehensive account of the LEO story, http://www.i-programmer.info/history/machines/670-leo-lyons-electonic-office.html

1984 (Siemens – Data Processing, the history of the domain of Data Processing from 1954 to 1984), Siemens Aktiengesellschaft, Munich. The paper, in German, refers to the role played by LEO.

Jackson, M.J., (1966), A Computer in the Mail Order Business, Data Processing, September-October, pp. 1-9.

Jackson, M.J., (1970), Freemans (London, SW9), paper presented at Computer for Profit Conference, 6 pages, sponsored by British Institute of Management, Confederation of British Industries and ICL, at Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, January 22nd 1970

Jackson, M,J., (1997), Freemans Mail Order, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 23, pp, 274 -286.

Johnson, H.J.W. (2016) LEO I – Recreating the Word’s First Business Computer, Middlesex University Mauritius Campus, Business Information Studies, Information Studies, Dropbox archive: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project – links to Dropbox ‘LEO Oral History project’, not to this specific item.

Kaye, E.J. and Gibbs G.R. (1954) ‘LEO – A Checking Device for Punched Paper Tape’,
Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 386-392.
Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp 18-24 http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/outriders/2011/11/leo_making_history.shtml

Kemp, K. (2014) Early Commercial Computing, Bristol Industrial Archaeological Society Journal (BAIS), No. 47, pages 21-33.

Lamming, N. (2017) LEO in OZ, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 53, Winter, pp 25-27.

Lamming, N., (2018), Peter Gyngell: Obituary, ICL All Stars Magazine, Issue 58, Winter. pp. 25-26, LEO Computers Dropbox archive at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/PETER%20GYNGELL%20Obituary.doc?role=personal

Land, F.F. (1960) ‘Computers in Purchasing and Stores Departments: LEO at the Ford Motor Company Spares Depot’, Computers in Purchasing and Stores Departments, Purchasing Officers Association, pp 27 – 33.

Land, F.F. (1994) `LEO, A personal memoir', in INGENUITY, the ICL Technical Journal, Vol 9, No. 2, pp. 355 – 361, https://www.fujitsu.com/uk/Images/ICL-Technical-Journal-v09i02.pdf

Land, F.F. (1996) Information Revolution, in Malcolm Warner (ed.), International Encyclopaedia of published in LSE Working Paper Series, Number 95. http://www.worldcat.org/title/informationrevolution/oclc/500306458&referer=brief_results

Land, F.F. (1996) ‘Systems Analysis for Business Applications’, Resurrection, Journal of the Computer Conservation Society, Summer.

Land, F.F. (1997) ‘Information Technology Implementation: The Case of the World’s First Business Computer: The Initiation Phase’, in McMaster, T., Mumford, E., Swanson, E.B., Warboys, B., and Wastell, D. (eds.) Facilitating Technology Transfer through Partnership: Learning from Practice and Research, pp. 3-19, Chapman & Hall: London.

Land, F.F., (1997), The Widening Field. in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 2, Chapter 15, pp. 168 -184.

Land, F.F. (1998) ‘LEO, The First Business Computer: A Personal Experience’, in Glass, R.L. (ed.), In the Beginning. Personal Recollections of Software Pioneers, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA.

Land, F.F. (1998) The Fist Business Computer: A case Study in User Driven Innovation, Proceedings of Conference Computers in Europe, Past Present and Future, Kyiv, pp. 108 -120, October.

Land, F.F. (1999) A Historical Analysis of Implementing IS at J. Lyons, in Currie, W.L. and Galliers, R.D. (eds.) Rethinking Management Information Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 310 - 325.

Land, F.F. (2000) ‘The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 16-26.

Land, F.F. (2003) A Computer Called LEO: Review: ACM Computing Reviews, June 24th, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=127849&listname=search - link takes to the login page only – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Land, F.F. (2006) LEO II and the Model T Ford, British Computer Society Journal, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 650 – 656.

Land, F.F. (2009) Appreciation of Professor Colin Tully (1936 – 2007): Professor of Software Practice, Middlesex University, British Computer Society, Vol. 52, Issue 3, May, pp. 388 – 391.

Land, F.F., (2010), The use of history in IS research: an opportunity missed?, Journal of Information Technology, Vol 25, pp. 365 – 394 Reprinted 2016 in Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 1, pp 213-234, editors Wilcocks, L., Lacity, M., Sauer, C., Springer International Publishers. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-29266-3_9

Land, F.F. (2012) Remembering LEO, pp. 22-42 in Tatnall, A. (ed.) Reflections on the History of Computing: Preserving Memories and Sharing Stories, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technologies, Springer.

Land, F.F. (2013) The story of LEO the World’s First Business Computer, in Developing LEO:
The world's first business computer, Warwick University Library Modern Records Centre,
Simmons Archive, https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/explorefurther/digital/leo/story/
Reprinted in The Software Practitioner, Vol 24, no.4, July 2014, p.5.

.Land, F.F. (2015) Early History of the Information Systems Discipline in the UK: An account based on living through the period, Communications of the Association for Information Systems: Vol. 36, Article 26. The article includes a short Appendix recounting the LEO story.

Land, F.F. (2017) Teleprocessing and LEO, Letter to Editor, Resurrection, Vol. 88, http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res78.htm

Land, F.F. (2017) Review: Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost its Edge in Computing, ACM Computing Reviews, June 27th, http://www.computingreviews.com/review/review_review.cfm?review_id=145394  - link takes to the login page only – need to be a member of ACM to access.

Land, F.F. (2017) Peter Bird Obituary, Other Lives, Guardian Newspaper website, 10th September, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/10/peter-bird-obituary

Land, R.R., (1997), Lyons Teashops, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 18, pp223 – 228.

Land, R.R., (1979), Behind the Iron Curtain, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 4, Chapter 26, pp. 306 -320.

Land, R.R., (2018), Mysterious Death of Dennis Skinner, commentary on report of death of LEO Moscow Office Manager. Commentary held by Frank Land and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=Dennis+Skinner+mysterious+death.docx. Also see Monica Porter below.

Land, R.R. (2016) LEO in East Europe, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 38, Article 34, http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol38/iss1/34

Lawson, Dominic (2016) 65 years ago the age of the computer began …. to sell a better tea cake, Sunday Times, 4th December, pg. 24, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/comment/65-years-ago-the-age-of-the-computer-began-to-sell-a-better-tea-cake-zzpx63qx6

Laver, M., (1997), The General post Office, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, Chapter 22, pp. 257 – 260.

Lavington, S.H. (1980) ‘LEO and English Electric’ in Early British Computers: The story of vintage Computers and the people who built them, Chapter 13, pp. 68 – 77, London: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Lavington, S.H. (2015) A Brief History of Early British Computers, ETHW, A Brief History of Early British Computers, http://ethw.org/A_Brief_History_of_Early_British_Computers

Lean, T. (2010) Mary Coombs: Oral History, National Life Stories: An Oral History of British Science, Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0016XX-0000A0.pdf

Lean, T. (2010) Frank Land: Oral History, National Life Stories: An Oral History of British Science, Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0017XX-0000A0.pdf

Lee, J. (ed.) (1998) Biographies, John Maurice McClean Pinkerton, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 69 – 71.

Lenaerts, E.H. (1950-1967) Note Books, a set of 48 manuscript diaries covering the work of LEO engineer Ernest Lenaerts from LEO I to LEO III. www.billp.org/LEO See also https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ernest+Lenaerts+and+his+diaries.doc&qsid=43582110631250927522239151161552&query=ernest+diaries&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Lenaerts, E.H. (1951) Visual Presentation of Binary Numbers, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 23, pp. 140-141.

Lenaerts, E.H. (1954) ‘LEO - Operations and Maintenance’, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 335-341. Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp. 11-17.

Lenaerts, E.H., (1955), Automatic Square-Rooting on a Computer, Electronic Engineering, July 1955

Lenaerts, E.H., (1966), Study of Static Charge on Paper Tape, Journal of Science Institute, June 1966

Lenaerts, E.H., (1967), Acoustic Noise in the Computer Room, for GPO, November 1967

Lenaerts, E.H., (1969), Talking to the Computer, New Scientist, December 1969

Lewis, J.W. (1963) ‘Time Sharing on LEO III’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 24-28.

Lewis, J.W. (1964) ‘The Management of a Large Commercial Computer Bureau’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 255-261.

Lewis, J.W., (1997), Glyn Mills Bank and Army and Air Force Officers Payroll, in Caminer, D.T., et al, editors, LEO: The Incredible Story of the World’s First Business Computer, McGraw-Hill, New York, Part 3, chapter 19, pp. 229 – 242.

Lyons, N. (2015) LEO: The Lyons Electronic Office. The story of the First Business Computer, Journal of the Royal Signals Institution, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 32-37. An abridged version was published in Kai Kai Baluch Journal September 17th 2017, pp. 29-32.

Lyons, N. (2016) LEO, the First Business Computer, Resurrection, No. 75, Autumn, pp. 19 - 30 http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res75.htm#top

Lyons, N. (2017) Correspondence, Research, Talks (including scripts), London Metropolitan Archives, City of London: Accession reference: B16/078, 2007-2016. The material includes history of J Lyons and Company Limited and its achievements (presentations includes images mainly sourced from Peter Bird, historian) and media interview recordings.

Lyons, N. (2018), The Joe Lyons Story –Food for Thought, Computer Conservation Society, talk presented at meeting of CCS in May 2017 tells the story of the company which produced the World’s First “electronic office”. Available at You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrwGDC8Bdow

Margolis, J, (2018) Review: ‘Electronic Dreams’ by Tom Lean, Financial Times, March 12th, 2018, https://www.ft.com/content/e1afa168-ef79-11e5-9f20-c3a047354386 ,

Another remarkable fact from Electronic Dreams: which UK company would you imagine was, by 1951, the world’s first to use a computer for business, and started making computers for other companies? It was J. Lyons and Co, the teashop chain. Its computer business, LEO, kept going until 1963. Lyons’ role as a computer manufacturing pioneer is the more astonishing — at least to anyone old enough to remember the ostensibly low-tech J. Lyons cafés — in that there was stiff competition from within the UK; companies such as Ferranti, Elliott Brothers, English Electric and British Tabulating Machinery were all selling British boffin-made computers globally.”

Martin, D. (2008) David Caminer, a Pioneer of Computing Dies at 92, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/technology/29caminer.html

Mason, R.O. (2004) ‘The Legacy of LEO: Lessons learned from an English Tea and Cakes Company: Pioneering efforts in Information Systems’, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 5, No. 5, May, pp. 183 – 219.

Mason, R. O. (2009) AIS, LEO and the Pursuit of Good Work, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 25, Article 37, pp. 452 – 464.

May, J. (2012) Review of a Computer Called LEO, Amazon Reviews, http://www.amazon.co.uk/review/R3MSJ7IMMOLZRU/ref=cm_cr_pr_viewpnt#R3MSJ7IMMOLZRU

Merriman, J.H.H., Caminer, D.T., and others, (1957) A Discussion on the Use of Electronic Processing Equipment, Journal of Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 120, No.3, pp. 291-307. Proof copy held by Hilary Caminer.

Microservios, (2011) LEO 1, el primer ordenador comercial de la historia, cumple 60 años, a Spanish version of the 60th LEO anniversary including the video of the event at the London Science Museum.

Morgan, A.B. (Tony), Commissioning LEOs — a Memoir, Newsletter and Review ISSUE Spring 2018,Vol. 4, section 9, page 12, editor Hilary Caminer, layout, Bernaqrd Behr.

Morgan, A. B. (Tony), LEO Lives: LEO DME, Another story……, in LEO Matters, Newsletter of LEO Computers Society, editor Vince Bodsworth, to be published

Mori, E. (2016) LEO Plaque Unveiling in London, Blog http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/leo-plaque-unveiling-in-london/

Mori, E. (2017) Coping with the “American giants": mergers, relationships and attempted partnerships in the European computer industry in the early sixties, Paper presented at 2017 4th Conference on the History and Philosophy Conference, Brno, SS

Mori. E. (2017) “Validity & Correctness before the OS: the case of LEO I and LEO II” presentation at Alan Turing Institute, October 2017, London and at the CNAM – Conservatoire national des arts et métie http://meetings.sigcis.org/conference-schedule.htmlhttp://meetings.sigcis.org/conference-schedule.htmlrs, on the 20th of October 2017, Paris. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/history-and-philosophy-of-programming-meeting-tickets-37255156175?

Mori, E., Primiero, G. and Arif, R. (2018 forthcoming) “Validity & Correctness before the OS: the case of LEO I and LEO II”, will be published in De Mol, L. and Primiero, G. (eds.), Reflections on Programming Systems – Historical and Philosophical Aspects, Philosophical Studies Series, Springer (forthcoming 2018).

Mori, E., (2018). From Academia to Business: the case of EDSAC and LEO, Stored in Memory. The 10th Annual SIGCIS Conference St. Louis, Missouri, USA, October 14, 2018

Mori, E. (2018), LEO, Olivetti e i primi computercommerciali in Europa:un'occasione perduta? In Mondidigitale.arcanet.com

Murgia, M. (2016) End of Moore’s Law? What’s next might be more exciting, Daily Telegraph, 26th February. The article has photo of LEO to indicate size of early computers, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/02/25/end-of-moores-law-whats-next-could-be-more-exciting/

Niewlsdomski, S. (2016) British transistor manufacturers in the 1950s, British Vintage Wireless Society Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 10-22. The paper includes a section on LEO III, and displays a job advert dated 1957 for Computer Engineers from LEO Computers Limited. It may be referenced and read but not copied. See http://www.bvws.org.uk/publications/bulletins.php/volume41number4

Page, C.A. (2010) LEO Computer Reunion 2010, Anna C Page’s Blog, WorldPress.com weblog. An account of the 2010 reunion by the daughter of a LEO programmer, including photos of LEO artefacts. https://annacpage.wordpress.com/2010/04/18/leo-computer-re 60, Springunion-2010/

Pearson, I. (ed.) (2017) ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 50, Autumn. The newsletter of ICL Australian veterans includes a number of references to the history of LEO.

Pearson, I. (ed.), (2018) ICL AllStars Magazine, Issue 60, Spring, the Newsletter of ICL Australian veterans includes a number of references to LEO including on pages 14 and 15 references to the collaboration between John Pinkerton and Conway Berners-Lee, ex Ferranti.

Pelling, N. (2002) The Case For The First Business Computer, http://www.nickpelling.com/Leo1.html The business cases behind the five proposals made to the board of J. Lyons & Co. by Thompson and Standingford in 1947 - which led to the construction of the first business computer - are analysed, but found to be strategically lacking. Both an alternate reading of the case and some contemporary implications are then developed.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1951) Automatic Frequency Control, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 23., pp. 147-148.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1952) Patent Application: GB000000767192A 29.05.1952 30.01.1957 JOHN MAURICE MCLEAN PINKERTON; LYONS & CO LTD J
Improvements in and relating to data transfer apparatus. Complete Specification published January 1957. See

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1954) Operating and Engineering Experience Gained with LEO, in Automatic Digital Computing, Proceedings of a Symposium held at National Physical Laboratory, March 1953, pp. 21-30, published by HMSO, http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/pdfs/Automatic_Digital_Computation_Symposium_Mar53_text.pdf

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1954) ‘The LEO System’, Electronic Engineering.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. and Kaye, E.J. (1954) LEO: History and Technical Description, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 284-291. Reprinted as part of ‘LEO –Lyons Electronic Office’ in Electronic Engineering, pp. 3-10.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1959) Features of the LEO IIC Computer, Automatic Data Processing, December.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1961) ‘The Evolution of Design in a Series of Computers’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 42-46.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1966) ‘Large-Scale Computing in the Seventies’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, September.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1975) ‘Performance Problems with LEO I’, The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 411-414, August.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1983) Tape 6 in Christopher Evans’s ‘Pioneers of Computing’, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 5, No 1, pp. 64-72, January-March.

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1987/88) ‘The Early History of LEO: The First Data Processing Computer’, The Computer Museum Report, Vol. 21, Winter, https://archive.org/stream/computermuswin198788comp/computermuswin198788comp_djvu.txt

Pinkerton, J.M.M. (1988) ORAL History – self interview, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 54 pages,

Pinkerton, J.M.M (1991) Taming LEO – Overcoming the Inherent Unreliability of LEO I, IEE Review, Vol. 37, pp. 13-17.

Pinkerton, J.M.M., Hemy, D., Lenaerts, E.H., (1992), The Influence of the Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory on the LEO Project, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 41-48.

Pinkerton, J.M.M, (1997), 'Evolution of Constructional Methods from Radios to Computers'. This is a 25 page illustrated booklet containing a reprint of a talk by John Pinkerton 'read at a joint meeting with the Computer Conservation Society at the Science Museum on 8 -9 April, including references to and photos of LEO. Published in Transactions of the Newcomen Society for the study of Engineering and Technology, Volume 68, 1996-9 

Pollock, N.C. (1955) Electronic Computers and their possible applications, Report to the Board, Stewart and Lloyds, Document stored at the National Museum of Computing, Bletchley. Thanks to Corby Borough Collection for making the Report available. See http://www.corby.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Electronic%20Computers.pdf

Porter, Monica, (1979). Mysterious Death of Dennis Skinner, Coffee Break: 2, 15 Years Ago. Report of death of manager of LEO Moscow Office in 1964. Copy of report held by Frank Land. Donated by Frank Skinner (no relation). See also blog by Ralph Land with more information, held by Frank Land and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=Dennis+Skinner+mysterious+death.docx.

Quest, M. (1962) Living with Computers, The Journal of the Hotel and Catering Institute, Vol. 9, No. 4. The article recounts the LEO story and includes an interview with Ralph Land about computers and the hotel business.

Randall, G.A. (1959) The Potentialities of a Computer in the Smaller Office, The Accountant, September 19th.

Reynolds, C. (1990) CODIL: The Architecture of an Information Language, The Computer Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 155-163. Note: CODIL was a LEO project.

Reynolds, C. (2015) Algorithms aren't everything, IT NOW, September, pp. 60-61.

Richardson, D.J. (1974) LEO Computers, a draft account based on interviews with Anthony Salmon, John Simmons and John Stevens, NAHC/LEO, A7 see http://archives.li.man.ac.uk/ead/html/gb133nahc-leo-p1.shtml

Rooney, B. (2011) World’s First Business Computer Celebrates 60th Anniversary, Wall Street Journal. Available at: http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2011/11/14/worlds-first-business-computer-celebrates-60th-anniversary

Runciman, B. (ed.) (2017) The Second Part of our Celebration of 60 years of BCS and the Member Magazine – 1987 – 2016, IT Now, Autumn, entry for year 2001, notes 50th anniversary of first LEO job with picture of John Pinkerton and picture of W.D.& H.O. Wills LEO II installation.

Sabbagh, D. (1999) When Lyons roared, Computing, September 30th.

Salmon, Sam, Chairman, (1965), J. Lyons & Co: Annual General Meeting Report, The Times Newspaper, Chairman’s report notes sale of all of the Lyons LEO Computers shares to English Electric and formation of English Electric LEO Marconi, June 14th

Samways, D. (2016) Marconi in Computers and Automation, held in Marconi Wiki, see https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1-eYS5yA1W4avTeW05NxnfDnt6Uq-xr-u7OAR0RXLpj4/viewform to access the Wiki. Included is a history referencing the LEO connection. Held in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=marconiincomputersandautomation+%5Blicensed+for+non-commercial+use+only%5D+-+Marconi+in+Computers+and+Automation.mht

Sant, W., (2015), The Early Days of Customs & Excise Computing, LEO Computers Society, editor Bernard Behr, Newsletter and Review, Summer 2015, Vol. 2, pp. 16-17. Apply to Frank Land or Bernard Behr for copy if required.

Saran, C. (2016) The heyday of computing: How the Brits ruled IT, Celebrating 50 years of British Technology Innovation, Computer Weekly, April 5-11, pp. 23-29. http://www.bitpipe.com/fulfillment/1459781780_511

Schmidt, E. (2016) From LEO to Deep Mind: Britain’s computing pioneers, presentation at the London School of Economics on 14th October 2016. The presentation took the form of a conversation between the speaker, the Executive Chair of Alphabet, the Google parent company, and Professor Chrisanthi Avgerou of the LSE and the audience. The presentation can be heard on the LSE podcast at http://www.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/videoAndAudio/channels/publicLecturesAndEvents/player.aspx?id=3612 The event was jointly sponsored by LSE’s Department of Management and the LEO Computers Society. It was intended to be the first of an annual LEO lecture.

Simmons, J.R.M. (1957) Priniples of Security, Reprinted Paper held in Simmons collected archive at Modern Records Centre, Warwick University as 363-51-6a, pdf.

Simpson, I, LEO III (13), from HigherSystems summarises the computers the author worked on starting with the British Oxygen LEO III – 1962 – 1965. See http://www.highersystems.co.uk/Leo_3.html

Skinner, Frank, collection of photographs and copies of articles referring to LEO made available to LEO Computers Society by Frank Skinner. Available from Frank Land f.land@lse.ac.uk and in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes?preview=FrankSkinnerCollection.eml

Smith, D (2011) Innovation in a tea shop, whatever next?, Fujitsu UK & Ireland CTO Blog, http://blogs.ts.fujitsu.com/uk-ie/cto/2011/11/innovation-in-a-tea-shop-whatever-next https://davidmsmith.net/tag/innovation/

Spooner, P. (1957) Electronics in the Office, Business Magazine, November Issue. This featured LEO II quite prominently but by this time many other British manufacturers also were offering for business. The Decca twin magnetic tape drive of which a photo appears was available with LEO II

Standingford, O. and Thompson, T.R. (1947) Report on a fact-finding trip leading to the development of the LEO computer.  A copy of this report which led to the decision by Lyons to build LEO is held in the London Science Museum, LEO exhibit in the Information Age Gallery. - The URL for the report is: https://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/documents/aa110067359/report-on-a-fact-finding-trip-leading-to-the-development-of-the-leo-computer

Standingford, O. (1956) Using a Computer Service and Multum in Parvo, Standingford’s summary of papers and discussions at the conference in The Electronic Office, a bound collection of articles assembled by the Office Management Association following their conference in April 1956. Bound volume held by Hilary Caminer.

Studebaker, D. (2000) The First Business Computer: A Case Study in User-Driven Innovation Review,ACM Computing Reviews, June 1st. http://www.computingreviews.com/review/Review_review.cfm?review_id=123033&listname=searchlink only takes you to the login page as need to be a member of ACM to see.

Thompson, T.R., and Standford, O. W., (1947), Report of visit to USA May/June 1947. Extract published in Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B., Hermon, P.M., Lanf, F.F. (editors and contributors) LEO The Incredible Story of the Wold’s first Business Computer, McGraw Hill, New York, Appendix A, pages 337-359.

Thompson, T.R. (1955) The Scope for Electronic Computers in the Office, presented to the Office Management Association's Conference in May.

Thompson, T.R. (1955) Diminishing Returns, Engineering, December 23rd. The paper reflects Thompsons impressions following a tour of computer installations in the USA.

Thompson, T.R. (1958) ‘Four Years of Automatic Office Work’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 106-112.

Thompson, T.R. (1960) ‘Problems of Auditing Computing Data: Internal Audit Practice and External Audit Theory’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 3, No 1, pp. 10-11.

Thompson, T.R. (1962) ‘Fundamental Principles of Expressing a Procedure for a Computer Application’, The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 164-169.

Thompson, T.R. and others ‘The LEO Chronicle, Major Events from 1947 to 1962’, Leo Archive, National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, LEO Computers, see https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/search/archives/367f3633-3a28-3fa9-837c-039693dcf8ee for listing of items held at John Rylands Library. As part of the library's special collections, the Archive is located in the main building of John Rylands University Library of Manchester, Burlington Street (building 18 in the campus map). Note the collection is not digitised and can be viewed by application to the librarian.

Vegter, I. (2007) The curse of the monitor, Brainstorm, 3 pages. History of LEO as object lesson in operating systems. http://www.brainstormmag.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=553%3Athe-curse-of-the-monitor&Itemid=124

Wagner, F. and Wolstenholme, P. (2003) ‘A Modern Real-Time Design Tool; Applying Lessons from LEO’, IEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol 14.

Walton, Mark, editor,(2018): A Celebration of Life in the 40s, 50s and 60s, includes an account of the leading role played by the UK in the development of computers, with a mention of the role played by LEO with photos of LEO I, published in September as part of Goodwood Revival, an annual 3 day festival celebrating Goodwood Racecourse.

Weetch, R. (2016) Middlesex University Scholarships and Awards 2016, Systematic Marketing, notes the award of the David Tresman Caminer Scholarship to Elisabetta Mori, https://smxi.com/blogs/russell.weetch/?cat=149

Weik, M.H. (1961) A Third Survey of Domestic Digital Computing Systems, Ballistic Research Report No. 1115, March, Ballistic Research Laboratories. Does not mention LEO but shows developments in USA. BRL Report 1961 http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL61.html#TOC

Whitley, P. (2005) Computerised payroll's Golden anniversary, Sage Accounting Web http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/topic/tax/computerised-payrolls-golden-anniversary

Wikipedia, LEO (Computers) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LEO_%28computer%29#References

Wilcock, J. (2010) The Staffordshire University Computing Futures Museum LEO Page, available at https://archive.is/SHAKK - a good account of the Lyons and LEO story.

Wilkes, M.V. (2001) ‘John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office’, IET Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 130-144.

Wilkes, M.V. (2001) ‘John Pinkerton and Lyons Electronic Office’, IET Engineering and Education Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 5, pp. 183-188.

Wilkes, M.V. (2000) 'Business Innovation: Introduction of new methods into business operations' IEE Inaugural Pinkerton Lecture, unpublished, copy of text with F. Land.

Williams, C. (2001) How a chain of tea shops kickstarted the computer age, Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8879727/How-a-chain-of-tea-shops-kickstarted-the-computer-age.html

Williams, C. (2015) Of Bunkers, Bytes, and Cakes
An abridged version is printed in March 2014 issue of Cyber Talk Magazine, Issue 4.

Williams, J.E. (1967) The Brains Behind The Buttons, Coventry Standard, p. 21, January 5th. The article refers to LEO/28 sold to Coventry Corporation.

Williams, R. (1976) Early Computers in Europe, AFIPS National Computer Conference and Exposition, June, Proceedings, pp. 21-29, New York. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1499799.1499804 and to download paper https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/afips/1976/5084/00/50840021.pdf The paper includes a long section on the Lyons/LEO story. From the abstract: “the paper also includes a detailed description of the birth and foundation of the most successful first British commercial computer company-Leo Computers Limited, and this gives an insight into the thinking which lay behind British early computer development”.

Woods. M.J. (2002) History of the Kidsgrove Works, http://www.members.optusnet.com.au/jaxbar/kidsgroveworkspt1.pdf A detailed account of the Kidsgrove works, including its role with English Electric LEO Marconi (EELM) and the part Kidsgrove played in the evolution of the UK computer industry.


The following web links provide search facilities covering most of the UK’s and Ireland’s
official archives:
http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ and http://copac.jisc.ac.uk/

LEO Computers Society. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/ The Society has a membership of over 700 people mainly ex- employees of LEO computers; J. Lyons & Co.; ex-employees of LEO clients; plus others interested in the story of LEO. Chair of the Society is Peter Byford. The Society publishes a regular Newsletter – editor Bernard Behr – describing aspects of the LEO story. One of its chief objectives is the preservation and publication of the LEO heritage. As such it has engaged in a partnership with the Cambridge Centre for Computer History in a project funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to further that objective. The Society and its members hold significant memorabilia in the form of :

Centre for Computing History Cambridge (CCH): www.ComputingHistory.org.uk Contact: Lisa McGerty at lisa@computinghistory.org.uk
The CCH and LEO Computers Society reached a Partnership Agreement in the summer of 2018 for the storage, and archiving of LEO memorabilia. At the same time the Partnership submitted a bid for funds from the Heritage Lottery Fund for support of further work in archiving and providing education and presentations noting the work of the LEO pioneers. In September 2018 the Fund made available substantial funding for an initial one year period. Earlier the Centre held an exhibition featuring the LEO story in November 2017, attended by a number of members of the LEO Computers Society some of whom gave a LEO heritage project presentation. A short description of the Lyons and the LEO project, including photos can be found at: http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/6162/LEO-I-computer-became-operational/. A collection of sounds made by LEO III has been borrowed by Jason Fitzpatrick from the LEO Computers website for display at the Museum on You Tube can be heard at https://youtu.be/6vfa_RC_y1M The LEO Computers Society has transferred a number of holdings to the CCH for secure keeping on a loan basis. These include files retrieved from Peter Bird, David Caminer and Ray Henessey. A ful list transferred as at October 2018 is provided in the annex to LEOPEDIA. See also LEO Computers Archive finds New Home

In March 2018 the following items were digitised and are available at http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/leotemp/ 

LEO II test program - scanned and available online as individual pages
Preparing for a computer - scanned, single pdf available online
Intro to programming - scanned and available online as individual pages
Inland Revenue - scanned and available online as individual pages
EDSAC – micro-programming - scanned and available online as individual pages
EDSAC -  scanned and available online as individual pages
Notes on use of LEO - scanned and available online as individual pages

UK (and online) Archives

British Library, holds various LEO related items in its archives. Including oral Histories of Mary Coombs and Frank Land. See


Archives IT – an organisation devoted to the collection, archiving and dissemination of information relating to the history of UK IT. The archive includes the Oral Histories of many UK’s eminent IT personal who made that history including from LEO Ninian Eadie. The Director of Archive IT is Paul D Janner, Director@archivesit.org.uk. See his article Capture the Past to Inspire the Future, page 66, ITNOW, Winter 2017. Website www.archivesit.org.uk

National Archive for the History of Computing, Manchester, LEO Computers, https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=history-of-computing-uk;ca4a4c3.0012
provides a listing of documents held by the library.
As part of the library's special collections, the Archive is located in the main building of John Rylands University Library of Manchester, http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/ Burlington Street (building 18 in the campus map. Note that none of the collections have been digitised, but can be viewed by arrangement with the Librarian

Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). Established annual Pinkerton Lecture at the behest of LEO Computers Society to honour the achievements of John Pinkerton. The lecture series commenced in 2000. Until 2011 the lectures were held at Faraday House, London. Since that date they have been given in India by the Indian branch of the IET in Bangalore. The IET write about the lectures at http://conferences.theiet.org/pinkerton/history/index.cfm

IET Pinkerton Lectures, Faraday House London

2000 Inaugural John Pinkerton Lecture Sir Maurice Wilkes AT&T Research Laboratories

2001 LEO and the Computer Revolution David Caminer OBE

2002 Seizing the Moment: The Far Reaching Effects of Broadband on Economy and Society
David Cleevely  Analysis Group

2004 Intellectual Property, Entrepreneurs and Company successes Hermann Hauser 
Director, Amadeus Capital Partners Ltd IET.tv footage

2005 ICT Use in Rural India: Innovations Bridge the Digital Chasm Professor Subhas
Bhatnagar  Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad IET.tv footage

2006 e-Science and Cyberinfrastructure Professor Tony Hey
VP Scientific Computing, Microsoft, USA IET.tv footage

2007 Invention to Phenomenon (Sensation?) Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Director of the World Wide Web Consortium

2008 Web 2.0 (Social Media to Inspire Change) Alex Balfour IET.tv footage

2009 IT: Is it on the money? John Carey, Former Head of Business, Strategy & IT and interim
CTO, Lloyds TSB IET.tv footage

2010 The relentless march of the microchip Steve Furber IET.tv footage

2011 Internet for all - is the real barrier to reaching this vision: demand, awareness, usability
or access technology?
 Dr Mike Short IET.tv footage

IET Pinkerton Lectures Bangalore, India

2012 Connecting Computers with the human brain Prof.Kevin Warwick (University of Reading)


2013 Can India create a global powerhouse? Sir Robin Saxby, Ex Founding CEO and Chairman ARM Holdings plc


2014 Internet of Things Jim Mornish, Founder and Chief Research Officer, Machina Research

2015 'Re-imagining society through the Internet of Everything'. Dr Robert Pepper,
Vice President - Global Technology Policy, Cisco http://events.theiet.in/Pinkerton2015/

Intriguing History Website cites “the very brave and innovative decision to promote the
development and use of commercial computers” taken by the Board of J. Lyons & Co. in 1947. See http://www.intriguing-history.com/leo-computer-jlyons-co/

Wikiwand Website provides a brief history of LEO including bibliography and links. See

Marconi maintain a Marconi History website which includes a section devoted to LEO Computers and is regularly updated with news from the LEO Computers Society. Access is restricted to password holders including Frank Land, marconiincomputersandautomation

Andrew Wylie – Mister Transistor – collects and records information about early transistor computers, including LEO III – see http://www.wylie.org.uk/technology/computer/LEO3/LEO3.htm

London Metropolitan Archive, (LMA), holds material relating to J. Lyons and Company archived under GB 0074 ACC/3527 See http://search.lma.gov.uk/LMA_DOC/ACC_3527.PDF Note: The material, including references to the LEO initiative are held in boxes in their original format (not digitzed). Selected material will be made available to searchers and can be photographed provided it is required for genuine research and not commercial reasons. LMA charges £5 per document copied. Neville Lyons neville.lyons@btinternet.com, (friend of the LEO Computers Society) has photographic copies of much of the material related to Lyons. LMA hold the copyright for the archive. Catalogue numbers for LEO related materials copied by Neville Lyons are:


Cadby Hall Visitors Book, Princess Elizabeth signature.


Lyons Office Journals covering profiles of TR Thompson, EH Lenaerts and Visit of Princess Elizabeth to Cadby Hall.


Chairmen’s Statements extracts mentioning LEO 1954 and 1965


Lyons Mail 1992 extract re LEO.

The I love ICL Website http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl3a holds a collection of documents including LEO III Intercode and CLEO training manuals. These include the following: LEO III Paperwork at:


LEO 326 11 Mag Tape boards at:


LEO III 3 Boards at:


LEO III 1 Tape , 110 LEO II/III Tapes and 1 Tape front at:


LEO III Panel at:


LEO II Machine Plaque at:


The site is maintained by Pete Wooledge a member of the LEO Computers Society,

Picture of KDF9 at Hartree House and 1947 book by Hartree can be found at

LEO II at Stewart and Lloyds, Corby Heritage Centre: Exhibition of LEO memorabilia and the story of the first LEO delivered to a customer held at Corby in July/August 2015. Exhibition entitled Corby & Electronic Brain http://www.northantstelegraph.co.uk/news/top-stories/discover-corby-s-computing-heritage-with-new-exhibition-1-6866793

University of Stafford April 14th 2016, Inaugural Lecture: Fifty Glorious Years Staffordshire's Role in the Development of Computing. The Lecture, by Professor Alan Eardley, includes references to English Electric, LEO, Kidsgrove. Photos of LEO and extracts from an interview of Frank Land by Alan Eardley.

Vintage ICL Computers: includes photographs of large range of computers which made up the ICL group, including some photos of LEO items. See http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl42 and http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com/icl42a. For further information contact Peter Wooledge tabbs-firefly@outlook.com and http://www.vintage-icl-computers.com

International Archives

Charles Babbage Institute and University of Minnesota Libraries Digital Conservatory, provides links to any LEO material held in the Library including the Pinkerton Oral History. See

The Museum of Communication, Berlin unites past and present of communication in its permanent exhibition: therefore it illustrates the origins, the development, and the future perspectives of the information society. Appealing rotating exhibitions cast light on different aspects of communication. The permanent exhibition features a cabinet that shows the history of digitalization. Within this cabinet information about and pictures of the early LEO-Computers are presented. https://www.google.co.uk/search?rls=com.microsoft:en-GB:IE-Address&dcr=0&tbm=isch&q=%EF%82%A7%09The+Museum+of+Communication,+Berlin+LEO+Computers&chips=q:the+museum+of+communication+berl

Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Purchased a Microprogram Module from a standard LEO III in 2013. The item is not on display but shown on its website together with a brief account of the LEO story written by Barbara Ainsworth. See http://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/articles/12682 The curator is (2018) Nicholas Crotty: ncrotty@museum.vic.gov.au

Heinz Nixdorf Museum (HNF), Padeborg Germany. Claims to be the largest Computer Museum in the world. But currently its only LEO holding is the Caminer et al LEO book in the Museum Library. Its Director, Dr Jochen Viehoff is keen to establish a LEO presence to show the LEO role in the history of computing. http://www.hnf.de/en/home.html

Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley. http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/
The Museum holds and displays a number of LEO II relics
including part of LEO II/3 the Corby Stewarts & Loyds Machine, and various LEO books and documents. Its record of holdings with photos is well organised and include the oral history of LEO veteran Chris Date (see Oral Histories below) and can be found on http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/468 http://www.computerhistory.org/search/?q=LEO+Computers&site=chm_collection&client=chm_collection&output=xml_no_dtd&submit.x=2&submit.y=2 The Museums senior curator, Dag Spicer, is a member of the LEO Computers Society and its American Correspondent. The Museum also holds a marketing film made for LEO and donated to the Museum by John Pinkerton. Museum Information about the film can be found at http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102705993 and http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/2260 More information about the LEO II/3 at Corby including Newspaper articles can be found at -http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102721101

University of Melboune Archive: holds collection of Shell Oil Australia Archive, including material relating to the purchase and use of LEO III in Australia

Computer History Archives Project: Director Mark Greenia, includes video Early Vacuum Tube Computers with a section on the LEO at around time index 7:34. and 13.09. Can be viewed at

Private Holdings

Many individuals, dead and alive; members of the LEO Computers Society or ex LEO employees, have private collections of LEO artifacts, documents and photographs, some of which are of historical importance. They include:

Alan King private archive

Peter Bird private archive, indexed and boxed and held at Cambridge Centre for Computer History.

David Caminer private archive, collected by Ray Hennessy and Hilary Caminer, part indexed and boxed.

John Aris private archive, collected by Ray Hennessy

Colin Tully private archive

Frank Land private archive, held by Elisbetta Mori.

Ernest Lenaerts 100 notebooks, quarto, compiled in manuscript, dating from 1949 to the early 1950s. The notebooks have been donated to the LEO Computers Society by Paul and David Lenaerts, Ernest's sons, and have been scanned into digital format by Bill Purvis, a member of the Computer Conservation s They can be viewed at http://www.billp.org/LEO"

Wally Dutton Wally's daughter Andrea has donated her father's collection of LEO memorabilia including published papers dating back to 1954, newspqper articles and photographs

There are many other private hoards and the LEO Computers Society would welcome information about such holdings.


A listing of which UK museums hold LEO Artefacts can be found at

Birmingham Museum J. Lyons donated some LEO I items to the Museum in 1965. Documentation relating to the donation is held by Peter Byford of the LEO Computers Society, and photographs of LEO I hardware items are held by Chris Burton of the Computer Conservation Society. The items themselves are currently (October 2018) not available for viewing whilst a major refurbishment of the Museum is taking place..

Science Museum, London. The Museum opened a new Gallery The Information Age,
which features amongst other exhibits tracing the evolution of the information age, a special section devoted to LEO, including recordings of a teashop manageress reflecting on the changes the Teashop Job (L3) made to her life. The new Gallery is sponsored by a number of members of the IT industry and organized and managed by Dr Tilly Blyth of the Science Museum. LEO items held are displayed at https://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/search?q=Library%20LEO%20items

The National Museum of Computer History, (TNMOC), Bletchley. LEO hardware items at TNMOC are listed at Hardware May 2010.pdf (3MB) and flowcharts of LEO I microinstructions at http://leo.settle.dtdns.net/LeoCode/MicroProgs.htm  Information about LEO related items and activities listed at V http://www.tnmoc.org/search/node/. Trustee of Museum and Secretary of Computer Conservation Society is Kevin Murrell, kevin.murrell@tnmoc.org

National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh. The Museum has LEOlll/33 (Phoenix Insurance), as well as three LEO III circuit boards, one of which is on display, and three circuit boards from from LEO IIs. The Senior Curator of Modern Science and Computing is Dr Tacye Phillipson: t.phillipson@nms.ac.uk Website: http://www.nms.ac.uk/

Museum of London, London. The Museum has parts of LEO III/45 ( Wedd, Durlacher, Morduant & Co.) including the console on display http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/Collections-Research/Collections-online/object.aspx?objectID=object-49407&start=1&rows=1 Website: http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/ Curator: Vyki Sparkes vsparkes@museumoflondon.org.uk

The Staffordshire University Computing Futures Museum LEO Page lists LEO III sales. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/leo-3s.html


John Aris – 1934 - 2010 Educated at Eton and Oxford, with a degree and life-long interests in the classics, joined LEO as a programmer in 1958. A career in LEO and its successor companies, including Chief Business Systems Engineer for ICL in 1968 was followed by heading the computer department of the Imperial Group, then becoming director of the NCC. He retained his interest in LEO up to the end of his life becoming a prominent and active member of the LEO Foundation and the LEO Computers Society.




Antony (Tony) Bernard Barnes – 1926-2000. Tony Barnes joined Lyons as a Management Trainee after graduating in 1947 working in the Statistical Office.  He transferred to the LEO programming team in November 1950 where his talents were quickly recognised.  In 1955 he accompanied Thomas Thompson to the USA on a six-week tour, visiting several computer manufacturers and users.  In January 1956 he became the Administrative Manager of the Design and Development Section of Leo Computers Limited and in June1959 the Production Director, reporting directly to Anthony Salmon, the main Lyons Board Director responsible for the whole LEO project.  He left Leo Computers Limited shortly after the merger with English Electric.

Maurice Blackburn – died 2016, LEO Engineer. See also reminiscences of Anthony Robin Davies below. Tony Morgan writes “Maurice was   very interesting person, a real gentleman with a small moustache. He had originally been a pilot with British South American Airways before it merged with British Overseas Airways. He was in Development at Minerva Road and his main claim to fame is in designing the Standard Interface Assembler for LEO III which connected industry compatible System 4 tape decks and also System 4 printers. This was particularly important for Post Office /British Telecom.. It had a unique type of logic element which made it difficult to understand and on which to diagnose faults. When we had problems in 1965 with what I called 'watered down expertise', Maurice ran two one week courses on it for engineers from around the country at PODPS, Kensington. There were a whole series of courses which I organised at that time.”

Peter Bird – born 1934, died 6th August 2017. After a career in the Merchant Navy achieving his Masters certificate ‘discovered’ computing, studied programming and applied for Jobs in computing. Interviewed by Lyons for an operator job and joined Lyons 1964 as an operator on the LEO III. Promoted rapidly to Operations Manager, then overall Systems Manager. After retirement became interested in the history of Lyons and in the LEO story resulting in the publication of his books on LEO and subsequently on Lyons the Food Empire. The LEO Computer Society book LEO Remembered is dedicated to Peter. Peter’s obituary was posted on the Guardian Newspaper website in the OTHER LIVES section on 10thSeptember 2017 at https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/10/peter-bird-obituary On October 14th it appeared on page 38 of the Guardian print edition in the Other Lives section of the Saturday edition. The obituary is also posted by Elisabetta Mori in http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/in-memory-of-peter-bird/http://ta.mdx.ac.uk/leo/in-memory-of-peter-bird/ and Wikipedia posted an obituary at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Bird_(IT_manager)

George Booth – Died 19th September 1959, aged 90, Company Secretary and Director of J. Lyons, made the case to the Lyons Board for the company to commit itself to build a business computer and to collaborate with Cambridge University with its EDSAC project by providing some funding for the project in exchange for help in setting up the LEO project. His support was crucial in getting the support of his fellow board members; Earlier responsible for recruiting John Simmons as someone to study and improve the efficiency of Lyons. Obituary written by Isidore Gluckstein in Lyons Mail October 1959.

Dan Broido – 1903-1990 Born in Siberia of politically active parents, refugee to Germany from Soviet oppression, took degree in Mechanical Engineering in Berlin, and became an engineer at the firm of Rotaprint, who sent him to the UK in 1934 to work in their London branch. Worked for Caterpillar Tractors during World War II on nationally important work, and subsequently for a Company interested in developing automatic reading equipment, Broido filed over 100 patents including one of the earliest bar code systems. The company was taken over by ICT but in 1956 he was recruited by LEO as Chief Mechanical Engineer charged with developing optical reading facilities. This resulted in the development of Lector and later Autolector. When LEO, and later ICL started selling computers in Eastern Europe including Russia, Broido played a key role in the success of that enterprise. A biographical sketch of his carrer can be found on pages 202 to 203 in his book LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2B.htm (page 1)

David Caminer1915 - 2008 joined Lyons before World War II as a Management Trainee, his career was interrupted by National Service, losing a leg in the battlefields of North Africa, before returning to Lyons and being appointed head of the Systems Research Office ,followed by taking a prominent and leading role in the establishment of LEO. Described by John Aris as the inventor of Systems Analysis, his methodological approach was a key factor in the success of LEO. His ambition, following his retirement was to ensure that the story of LEO would take its proper place in the history of computing. He helped fulfil that ambition by his writing and the establishment of the LEO Foundation. See also a biographical sketch on page201 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer

Obituaries and Tributes

Financial Times (Alan Cane)

Switched .com (Will Safer)

The Independent (Martin Campbell-Kelly)

Booksellers Association (Martyn Daniels)

The Daily Telegraph

IT History Society

The Times

Scotts news.blogspot.com

The Guardian (Frank Land)

BBC Radio 4 ‘Last Word’

The Jewish Chronicle

Computing (Iain Thomson)

The Richmond and Twickenham Times

Twinings Tea

The Liverpool Daily Post

Centaurs Rugby Club

The New York Times (Douglas Martin)


The Atlanta Journal Constitution


The Chronicle Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia

Computing- Letters to the Editor (R.Sarson)

The Day, Connecticut


The LEO Society website (Frank Land)

The Test Bed- Personal Computer World

Vnunet.com (Iain Thomson, San Francisco)

Fujitsu - ICL pensioners (Frank Land)

Star Tribune, Minneapolis-St Paul

Chicago Tribune

Ameblo, Japan

The Eponymous Pickle (Franz Dill )

Guardian Blogs

Funeral piece (Hilary Caminer)

Gadsden Times







Jackie Caminer – died January 2017 aged 94, wife of David Caminer. Her daughter Hilary Caminer writes: ` My mother, Jackie, died this morning peacefully at home aged 94. Without her, my father's LEO work would have been much harder for him - they were heroes and heroines those LEO partners.

She had a fine career in her own right as a teacher - teaching not only here but in Brussels and Luxembourg when my father was installing computers for the EU. She was also an ardent campaigner on adult education and on local issues as well as a fine dancer, artist and craftswoman. She missed my father terribly and counted many of his LEO colleagues as personal friends.

Doug Comish writes: I was very sorry to hear that your mother had died. She was a quite remarkable character with many accomplishments and a most wonderful wife for David.

She was a super support for him during an exciting and important career.

When you look back at what was achieved with LEO it was remarkable. It was a privilege to work with that outstanding team of people from all disciplines—from application designers, programmers, operators, design, development, and production engineers and marketeers. The manner in which they all pulled together and overcame problems was probably unique.

Your father played the major role but Jackie was a great support. You can be very proud of them.

Hamish Carmichael died July 2017 aged 83. Hamish after a career with ICL became an active member of Computer Conservation Society. Always a good friend of LEO. Author of book of reminiscences and stories of ICL (including LEO) employees. Computer Conservation Society obituary http://www.coymputerconservationsociety.org/index.htm

Joe Crouch Died 2018. Joe Crouch joined LEO as a trainee programmer and quickly rose to Senior Programmer/Consultant Status, working at Hartree House. When Ilford Limited acquired a LEO II Joe headed the LEO team helping to establish the computer’s systems. Subsequently he joined Leo Fantl in South Africa as head of the Programming group. (noted by Norman Witkin)

Leo Fantl writes “A key area (in our operations) … was production, which covered our operating, data preparation, and local mine data capture. Joe Crouch took the lead here. ….In many ways Joe was another Derek Hemy, incredibly quick to grasp a new point, clear thinking, and a good writer. His direction of the preparation and subsequent management of operations was outstanding. I had chosen Joe to succeed me but this turned out to be not to his liking. Later he did much difficult design work for the larger group, notably Sage Life, the group’s insurance company” Joe married a local Afrikans girl.

John Godwin writes; “I remember them (Bob Day and Joe Crouch) as being among the pioneers of computers in South Africa. In the nineteen sixties LEO III/2 at the Johannesburg bureau was the first commercial multi-processing machine in the country.

Along with Leo Fantl and their colleagues they changed the way the Mines and other large companies ran their businesses. Today everyone is a computer expert, but then they really were. I am glad I knew them, true trail blazers.”

Mike Daniels died March 2018, worked in Service Bureau, Hartree House in Programming and Support 1962-1966. He went on to work with several companies, including UNISYS, RCA (in America), III, an American Company back here. He worked on computer systems all his working life, all over the world. He was mainly involved in print/newspapers but also programming with Concorde. That said, he never forgot the early days.
He was a super guy, always cheerful. I'm so glad you had good memories. Please pass on to anyone who knew him (From Betsan Daniels).

Bob Day Died 2018. Bob was recruited in 1960 by Leo Fantl to join the newly formed LEO/Rand Mines collaborative venture in Johannesburg, South Africa. Bob, of Afrikan descent, was one of a handful recruited, all of high quality joining within that first period. Bob stayed in a senior role until his retirement.

Leo Fantl writes “Bob Day was a typical South African. With an outstanding secondary education record, he joined the Post Office as a technical apprentice, and completed his training as the top performer for the whole country. Bob is mainly Afrikans but totally bilingual . When he took our appreciation course, he had never done any programming, but I still remember his hostile stare during my lectures –and how I leaned over him while he was writing his test, to see if he was actually writing sense. He got 100 per cent.’ (User-Driven Innovation, p.300)

John Godwin writes: “In the nineteen sixties LEO III/2 at the Johannesburg bureau was the first commercial multi-processing machine in the country. Along with Leo Fantl and their colleagues they (Bob Day and Joe Crouch) changed the way the Mines and other large companies ran their businesses. Today everyone is a computer expert, but then they really were. I am glad I knew them, true trail blazers”.

Leo Fantl – 1924-2000 Came to UK in June 1939 as a refugee from Czechoslovakia. Joined RAF age 18 and received technical training. Recruited by Lyons as Technical Trainee in the Planning Department in 1949, but was transferred to the LEO enterprise in 1950 to join Derek Hemy as a pioneer programmer. Despite a lack of formal training became a first rate mathematician involved in developing mathematical software and doing ground-breaking work in the problem created by rounding errors. Played major role in most of the early LEO applications including the tax tables for the UK Inland Revenue. In 1960 he was seconded to work on LEO’s first overseas venture, the joint establishment with Rand Mines of a LEO III computer bureau in Johannesburg. He spent much of his remaining career managing the computer operations of Rand Mines by then the sole owners of the bureau. A brief biographical sketch can be found on page 202 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

Gordon Foulger – 1942-2011 After graduating from Queen Mary University with a degree in General Science he became a LEO programmer seconded to work on GPO programs, including the Giro and telephone billing. He became a database specialist and consultant as his career evolved.

Bob Gibson – born 1927, died August 2016. He trained as electronic engineer as part of National Service. After working as an electronic research engineer in Civil Service, recruited by LEO as trainee maintenance engineer. Took responsibility for training customer engineers and rose to oversee all LEO training as well as managing engineering maintenance services, and personnel. Briefly left LEO to become a management consultant but returned to become head of customer support services for EELM. Completed career with ICL as manager Large Projects before setting up his own consultancy. Retired 1988 and published book on Project Management. Gained a reputation as a safe pair of hands for complex and difficult assignments. One of the stalwarts whose contribution played a key role in the success of LEO.

John Gosden – 1930-2003 Joined LEO as a programmer in 1953 after taking a degree (pass) in Mathematics at Cambridge University and made rapid progress with his understanding of software. Played a key role in the design of systems software for LEO II and LEO III. Left LEO in 1961 to emigrate to the USA for a sterling career in computing including acting as advisor on computer matters to the US Government.
A biographical sketch of his career can be found on pages 203 and 204 in Peter Bird’s
LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

Kit Grindley - born in Clapham< London, April1929, died October 26th 2018 in Sydney Australia. Kit Grindley after graduation from LSE in 1956, started as a Management Trainee in Lyons in 1956 and was a part of the LEO team of LEO I and LEO II programmers. He subsequently enjoyed a successful and varied career as a computer professional, This included compiling an annual review of the chief issues faced by CIOs when working as a Director for Urwick Diebold, a subsidiary of Urwick-Orr and Partners, acting as a consultant for Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC), publishing a number of book on computer management including Systematics, editing the Journal IT Reviews working for and being awarded a PhD (197 2) by the London School of Economics, followed by being appointed to, first a Professorial Fellowship at the LSE sponsored by F International and later by a part-time chair in Systems Analysis sponsored by PWC also at the LSE. His academic career included a stint as Adjunct Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney. His wife Liz notes of his LEO years: “…(those who) knew him during those crazy, exciting and trail blazing years.  He was such an exceptional person and we are all lucky to have loved him.  Such a great brain and so many talents.”  His death is noted in the Sydney Morning Herald – see

Link to SMH obituary:  http://tributes.smh.com.au/obituaries/smh-au/obituary.aspx?n=christopher-grindley&pid=190608434

John Grover Born December 1924, died 2000. After National Service in the RAF where he gained his pilot’s wings, joined Lyons as a Management Trainee in 1947 working on Bakery Accounts. Recruited to the new LEO team as a programmer in 1950, took responsibility for a number of the early LEO applications Including the world’s first business application, the valuation of bakery output. David Caminer paid this tribute to John Grover. "John played an invaluable part in out very very small team. He followed the methodology that we laid down unswervingly and made it possible to get it firmly established as newcomers were drawn in. He was a fine trainer and many of the young men and women who were recruited learned the new discipline working under him." He left LEO in 1956 to join Derek Hemi at EMI working on the EMIDEC. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 204 in Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer. http://www.computerconservationsociety.org/resurrection/res24.htm#d

Peter Gyngell born 23 February 1930, died 6thJune 2018 at his home in Wollongong, Australia.  Peter was born in Wales, graduated from RADA in 1948, but did not follow an acting career.  He became involved with LEO in 1958 working for the Ford Motor Company on their LEO II computer at Aveley on the huge Ford spare part application.  He played a critical part in the success of that work. He subsequently joined LEO Computers Limited and was appointed manager of the LEO operations Australia  in 1961.  Neill Lamming writes: “As General Manager of LEO Australia when it was formed in 1961, Peter had a massive presence in the early business computing market in Australia. He personally led the sales campaigns which resulted in spectacular wins against established competitors like IBM with such major organisations as Shell Australia, Colonial Mutual Life, H C Sleigh and Tubemakers of Australia. He was a legend who will always be remembered warmly by those who worked with him.” A more extended obituary is held in the LEO Computers Dropbox archive at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/PETER%20GYNGELL%20Obituary.doc?role=personal

Douglas Hartree 27.03.1897-12.02.1958, eminent Cambridge Scientist noted for his contribution to a number of fields of study including early computing – as an example he was the first civilian to programme ENIAC - played a crucial role in the collaboration between Cambridge University and Lyons in the development of LEO. “Hartree's fourth and final major contribution to British computing started in early 1947 when the catering firm of J. Lyons & Co. in London heard of the ENIAC and sent a small team in the summer of that year to study what was happening in the USA, because they felt that these new computers might be of assistance in the huge amount of administrative and accounting work which the firm had to do. The team met with Col. Herman Goldstine at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton who wrote to Hartree telling him of their search. As soon as he received this letter, Hartree wrote and invited representatives of Lyons to come to Cambridge for a meeting with him and Wilkes. This led to the development of a commercial version of EDSAC developed by Lyons, called LEO, the first computer used for commercial business applications. After Hartree's death, the headquarters of LEO Computers was renamed Hartree House. This illustrates the extent to which Lyons felt that Hartree had contributed to their new venture.” From Wikepedia at https:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_Hartree

George A. Hayter – Died April 2015 in Northern Cyprus. Joined LEO about 1964/5, on systems and sales, at Allied Suppliers, started at Hartree House, then Computer House and Stag Place. Subsequently worked at BOAC under Peter Hermon, then headed the Stock Exchange computer transformation, before setting up his own consultancy for the financial sector.

Derek Hemy !920 –2000, Joined Lyons as Management Trainee 1939. Did war service in Royal Corps of Signals. Returned to Lyons in 1946 in Systems Analysis Office under David Caminer. Selected as first LEO programmer, a role in which his performance was outstanding. Left LEO in 1955 to senior role in EMI's venture into computing with the EMIDEC. Transferred to ICL when they took over EMI computing and later became computer consultant for Unilever. More biographical details in Bird, P. J. LEO: The First Business Computer, pp. 204- 205.

Ray Hennessy Programmer, consultant, LEO Computers Society stalwart and Committee Member, spent 32 years at LEO before retirement. Born 1934 died 15th November 2016. Oral History edited transcript https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interviews?preview=Ray+Hennessy+edited+P2.doc Obituary by John Daines Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project?preview=Ray+Hennessy+Obituary+John+Daines.doc

Mavis Hinds – 1929-2009 Worked for the Meteorological Office and used LEO I for weather forecasting – the earliest use of computers for modelling the weather in the early 1950s.

Derek Jolly Born 1930, Died June 2018. Joined LEO circa 1953-54, After grammar school started training as an accountant, but decided to try something else and was interviewed by David Caminer, and Tony Barnes and offered a job with LEO I as an operator. Worked on LEO I, LEO II and LEO III. Became shift leader and then Chief Operator. Left LEO in 1974 to join Access at Southend. Retired aged 60. Derek was one of the most popular people at Hartree, always caring and very competent in his various roles.
Oral History in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Derek+Jolly+edited+P2.doc&qsid=26418865507404425279799032559688&query=derek+jolly&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Ernest Joseph Kaye – 1922-2012 Joined John Pinkerton as his assistant in 1949 in the design of LEO I and later LEO II, having been recruited as an electronic engineer from GEC. Later took on the role of procurement officer for the engineering side of LEO. Retired in 1968 to the family firm of renting material for television and theatre productions. See also page 205 for a biographical sketch in Peter Bird’s LEO: The First Business Computer.

Ben Rooney in Wall Street Journal http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2012/05/07/u-k-computer-pioneer-dies/

Daily Telegraph 10th May 2012 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/9255130/Ernest-Kaye.html

From BBC's Jamillah Knowles on the Next Web


From Frank Land in Guardian Online 14th May 2012 http://m.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/may/14/ernest-kaye?cat=technology&type=article




Ernest Lenearts – 1910-1997 Despite an interest in things technical his parents persuaded him to take a clerical job at J. Lyons starting in the late 1920s. Bored by his job he asked for more technical training in the hope of getting a job in the Lyons laboratories. His chance to progress came during World War II. In 1941 he became a wireless mechanic in the RAF rising to the rank of sergeant before demobilisation. He returned to Lyons, but was now appointed Radio Mechanic working on innovative microwave technology. On the inauguration of the collaboration between Cambridge University and Lyons on the EDSAC/LEO project he was sent to Cambridge for the year 1948 both to learn about computer technology and to help in the design of EDSAC. When Lyons commenced building LEO he joined John Pinkerton in the design team. He made many contributions and also helped in the writing of many technical papers including one selected as the best paper of that year. He subsequently took an interest in the man-machine interface including working on speech recognition. He retired in 1969. A biographical sketch of his career can be found on pages 206 to 207 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.


George Manley – 1938-2011 LEO engineer, rising from apprentice to Chief Commissioning Engineer. After an illustrious career with LEO was headhunted by Honeywell before in 1974 returning to what was now ICL. http://www.leo-computers.org.uk/images/GeorgeManleyObit.pdf

Donald Moore1920-2013, started his career in computing by setting up and managing the Army Payroll Centre with an IBM 705, subsequently took over the Shell-Mex & BP LEO III computer Centre at Hemel Hempstead. Obituary: http://announcements.telegraph.co.uk/deaths/169330/moore

Robert E Peel He was an intrinsic part of the Master Routine team with such luminaries as Adrian Rymell, Colin Tully, Nigel Dolby, Sheila Milne and I’m sure a few others whose names I have forgotten. The Intercode Translator team interacted closely with the Master programmers and I remember Bob as a thoroughly pleasant and competent member of that illustrious team. I think he worked on the Allocator/Loader routine which had to take the translator output and do something sensible with it. I remember nothing but the great professional relationship we had with him.

John Pinkerton – 1919-1997 After doing research into radar systems and receiving a PhD at Cambridge recommended by Maurice Wilkes to Lyons as the Engineer to design and develop. He joined Lyons in January 1949 and started to build the small team of engineers which succeeded in building LEO I as a machine based on the EDSAC design but significantly modified for business data processing. In 1959 he was appointed a Director of LEO Computers Limited, but resigned on the merger creating EELM. On the further creation of ICL he took charge of research into the product lines being developed by EELM. Subsequently he took a leading role in the development of International Standards and represented the UK in bodies such as the European Union’s ESPRIT project. He also became Chairman of the editorial Board of the ICL Technical Journal. As a tribute to his outstanding qualities the IET inaugurated an annual Pinkerton Lecture and the WCIT set up an annual Pinkerton Award to the years leading apprentice. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 208 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.




http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/107600/oh149jmp.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y https://www.cliftoncollege.com/external/clifton-memories/john-pinkerton-and-the-first-business-computer/

Anthony Salmon – 1916-2000 A member of the ruling Salmon and Gluckstein family, founders of J. Lyons & Co, was assigned Managing Director of LEO Computers Limited on its foundation in 1954 and became a main board Director of the parent company in 1955. He played an active role in promoting LEO sales using his extensive business contacts. Ceased active involvement after merger of LEO with English Electric in 1963, though nominally Vice-Chair of merged company. A short biographical sketch can be found on page 208 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2S.htm (page 1)

John Simmons – 1902-1985 after gaining a first class degree in Mathematics from Cambridge University he was recruited by George Booth, Lyons company secretary as a Management Trainee and statistician with a brief to review and develop the Lyons business processes. Under his tutelage many innovations to business processes were introduced and in 1932 he established the Systems Research Office. In 1947 he sent two of his managers to the USA to study if Lyons could learn from American business processes. The outcome of the visit was the famous Standingford/Thompson report suggesting the possibility of computers as an engine for making the company more efficient. He used his own reputation and authority to endorse the idea and the resulting collaboration with Cambridge University to build LEO. He was appointed to the Lyons Board in 1954 as an Employee Director and a year later as a full Director. His reputation in the business world was an important factor in the establishment of LEO, the product of a catering company, as one of the leading computer supplier in the UK and further afield. A biographical sketch can be found on pages 209 o 210 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.
http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/978019 209 to 210 in Pet8614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-57059?rskey=A6LhXK&result=4

Oliver Standingford – 1912-1980, Senior Lyons Manager who at the behest of John Simmons, visited the USA with T.R. Thompson. They jointly wrote the report which was instrumental in the initiative which led to Lyons building the LEO computer. http://www.kzwp.com/lyons.pensioners/obituary2S2.htm

Robin Stanley-Jones – Died 2013, joined as a technician around 1961 and worked at Minerva Rd; did 24/7 shifts on III/1 at Hartree House; then went with LEO III/8 to Australia (Tubemakers of Australia) (1963?). He returned to Minerva Road in 1967 (where he met his wife) and worked in development until the company became ICL. He remained in IT, mostly with Digital Equipment, until his retirement.

George F Stevens 1911-2002, senior Lyons manager who took responsibility for the running of the Lyons LEO Computers when LEO Computers Limited merged with English Electric. He subsequently oversaw the switch by Lyons to IBM computers.

Thomas Raymond Thompson (TRT) 1907-1976. The Lyons Mail published an appreciation of TRT in its April 1976 issue. This can be found in the Warwick University Simmons archive filed as 383-S4-14-2-9.jpg. TRT was one of the giants of the LEO enterprise.
The Lyons Journal published a
personality profile of T.R. Thompson in August 1961. A copy of the profile can be found in the London Metropolitan Museums Archive (LMA) as part of its collection of J .Lyons & Co. papers. It has been copied by Neville Lyons and is available from him.

Colin Tully – 1936-2007 Joined LEO in 1960 after graduating with a degree in Economics from Cambridge. University. Became very much involved with Software Development including coding the LEO III Master Routine. Subsequently mixed an academic career with consultancy and practice at Standard Telephone and Cables. Had stints as an academic researcher at York University, Cranfield and the London School of Economics, finishing his career as Dean and Professor at Middlesex University. Maintained his interest in LEO and its achievements via the LEO Foundation and the LEO Computers Society.

Wallace Weaving Born 1931, died 6th November, 2012. Wallace joined EELM in the UK but was transferred to EELM in Australia early in 1963. An account of his career was published in the Australian All Stars (ICL) magazine in 2013 and an edited version is held in the LEO Computers Dropbox archive, https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/Wallace%20Weaving%20Obituary.docx?role=personal
Pam Garnsey (with some added and fond reflections from Neil Lamming, Mike Benton and Kent & Sheilagh Brooks)

Mike WebbDied November 2015 at his home in Anglesey. Joined LEO as a mathematician and operational research specialist. After leaving LEO became an academic, first with the LSE and subsequently as head of business studies at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Sir Maurice Wilkes – 1913-2010 Maurice Wilkes, played a leading role in the design of the Cambridge University EDSAC Computer in the late 1940s and in return for some funding for that project from J. Lyons & Co, allowed the Lyons team to use the EDSAC design as the basis for LEO I, cooperating with the LEO team and helping in the selection of J. Pinkerton as the chief LEO Engineer. He will be remembered as a good friend of LEO.

Peter Wood1918-2013, who has died at the age of 95, was given a good send-off in June, well attended by family, old boys and members of his bowls club. Peter was very modest about his war, but it was revealed that he was evacuated from Dunkirk, trained as a commando, fought in India on the North-West Frontier, was captured by the Japanese – and escaped! He ended the war as a 27-year-old Lt-Colonel, still in the Far East. An England-schools rugby international, he became a pillar of the Association, and a leading member of both the cricket and rugby clubs. He was Ground Secretary for many years, and a vice-President of the Association and those clubs. After the war he was responsible for the first commercial computer in the country, the LEO I, as DP Manager for the Lyons Organisation.  A biographical sketch can be found on page 212 of Peter Bird’s LEO: the World’s First Business Computer.

Anatol Zak LEO III engineer, 1934-2015 See https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Anatol+Zak+Biographical+Notes.doc&qsid=67346903616870339613192425801690&query=anatol+zak&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D
for brief bio.

Others whose death has been noted, but of whom more information would be welcome:

Jamie Anderson

John Merton Baker

Geoffrey Barnsley

Norman Bishop

Ray Bradshaw

Geoff Christopher

John Coombs

Geoff Cooper, Design Engineer, died 4th January 2017

Jo Davies

Keith Davies

Colin Davis

Ernie Doors

Wally Dutton

Bob Elmer

Alan Evans

Mavis Everitt (nee Tin(d)ale)

Jim Feeney, died April 2016, aged 72 after a short illness

Sean Ferguson

David Garood

Mike Gomm (Australia)

John Hemstead

Alan Hooker Jr, died 26th September, 2017

Trevor Hughes

Ron Hurst

Bob Knight, Died May 2016

Michael Knowles

Alan Lake, died May 8th 2017

Colin Lewry, died 21 September, 2017

David Litten

Ross Macadam

Ken MacLachlan

Eve Manley

George Manley

Bob Melling

Reg Miller

Sam Mitra, joined J Lyons as electronic engineer, LEO 1953, died 1985

Frank Moran

David Musson, died May 2016

Peter O’Keeffe, died February 2017

Fred Owen

Bruce Parkin

Geoff Parry

Bernard Pierce, died April 2016

Mrs Pam Procopiou, died April 2016, Hartree House Receptionist

Gerry Randall

Mike Roberts

Brian Rogers

John Rookes

Dave Rowberry, Software Programmer, later member of Animals group, died 2003

Geoff Rowett

Ted Rowley

Ann Sayce

Anne Smewing, died 2012

Frank Thorne

John Tomlinson

Frank Walker

Note: Would anybody who has further information about people on the list including dates of birth and death, when at LEO or its clients, position or role, links to obituaries, pictures [please send them to Frank Land {f.land@lse.ac.uk}

Brief biographical sketches of a number of Lyons and LEO people can be found in LEO, the First Business Computer; P. Bird, Hasler Publishing, 1994, pages 200-212.

The following people – in alphabetical order - are noted:

Tony Barnes, Daniel Broido, David Caminer, Mary Coombs, Leo Fantl, Isidore Gluckstein, Montague Gluckstein, Samuel Gluckstein, John Gosden, John Grover, Derek Hemy, Ernest Kaye, Frank Land, Ernest Lenaerts, Joseph Lyons, John Pinkerton, Anthony Salmon, Ray Shaw, John Simmons, Oliver Standingford, Thomas Raymond Thompson, David Wheeler, Maurice Wilkes, Peter Wood.


Note: The LEO Computer Society uses Dropbox to hold records of interviews, reminiscences and memoirs recorded by the Society. The Dropbox links are provided for some of the records below. However the link can only be activated by a few designated members of the Society. Anyone who wishes to download a particular item, please apply to Frank Land at f.land@lse.ac.uk

Interviewer: Chris Evans

Date of Interview: !970s

Edited Transcript: Science Museum

Copyright: Science Museum

Reprinted as Interview between J.R.M. Simmons, Director and Chief Comptroller of J. Lyons & Co., and the Science Museum, London. Appendix B, in Caminer, D.T., Aris, J.B., Hermon, P.M., Lanf, F.F. (editors and contributors) LEO The Incredible Story of the Wold’s first Business Computer, McGraw Hill, New York, pages 360-374

John Pinkerton (1)

Interviewee:  John M.M. Pinkerton 1919 - 1997

Interviewer: John Pinkerton, self interview

Date of Interview:  23.08.1988

Role in LEO: Chief Engineer

Joined LEO: 1948

Abstract: Pinkerton begins by discussing his education and wartime work in radar technology in England. He then describes his movement into the computer industry after World War II and his work on the LEO I and LEO II computers. In this context he discusses the British computer firms J. Lyons and Company, Leo Computers, English Electric Co., and International Computers Ltd.

Repository: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Transcript:  54 pages

Copyright: Charles Babbage Institute

Download: http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/107600/oh149jmp.pdf?sequence=1

Interviewee:  John M.M. Pinkerton 1919-1997

Interviewer: Chris Evans

Date of Interview: 1975

Role in LEO: Chief Engineer

Joined LEO: 1948

Abstract: John Pinkerton joined Lyons as chief engineer at the very beginning of the LEO initiatve and led the engineering side until the merger with English Electric. He held senior engineering appointments within the merged companies until his retirement. Much of the success of the LEO enterprise lay in his genius for bringing innovative ideas to practical fruition – one of the true heroes of the information age.

Repository: London Science Museum

Audio Recording: Tape 6 in Christopher Evans’s ‘Pioneers of Computing’

Transcript: Evans, Chris, (1983) Pioneers of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 5, No 1, pp 64-72, January-March.

Copyright: Audio, London Science Museum, Transcript, IEEE

Interviewer: Thomas Lean, British Library

Date of Interview: 2010 Reference: C1379/16 Role in LEO: Programmer

Joined LEO: 1953

Role in LEO: Programmer

Abstract: This is a full oral history of the life of Mary Coombs as part of the British Libraries Oral History series on the life of selected British Computer scientists.

Repository: British Library, National Life Stories, an oral history of British Science

Type of recorder: Marantz PMD661 on secure digital (Sessions 1-4) Marantz PMD660 on

compact flash (Sessions 5-9) Recording format: Wav 24 bit 48 kHz (sessions 1-4) WAV 16 bit 48 kHz (sessions 5-9) Total no. of tracks 9 Stereo Total Duration 07 hours:14 minutes:40 seconds

Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0016XX-0000A0.pdf

Copyright/Clearance: Open except for 00:56:57 – 00:59:15 of track 7 and 00:21:51 - 00:22:49 of
track 9; these sections are closed for 30 years until June 2041.

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Programmer,

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Mary Coombs as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/


Interview Text

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google. Free to view.

References to Mary Coombs listed in Wikipedia:

    1. Jump up ^ "Mary Coombs". The British Library. 

    2. ^ Jump up to: a b computingheritage (2013-09-05), Mary Coombs shares her story, retrieved 2018-07-26 

    3. Jump up ^ Douglas, Ian (2013-09-11). "Bletchley Park celebrates women in computing". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    4. Jump up ^ "Women in Computing: a British Perspective - Google Arts & Culture". Google Cultural Institute. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    5. Jump up ^ "Mary Coombs - Computing History". www.computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-26. 

    6. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f "Mary Coombs". Diversity in HPC. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 

    7. Jump up ^ "Museum celebrates women in computing". BBC News. 

    8. ^ Jump up to: a b Bird, Peter J. LEO: the First Business Computer. Wokingham: Hasler Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-9521651-0-4. 

    9. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ferry, Georgina (2004). A Computer Called LEO: Lyons Tea Shops and the world's first office computer. Harper Perennial. p. 106. ISBN 1 84115 1866. 

    10. ^ Jump up to: a b Janet., Abbate, (2012). Recoding gender : women's changing participation in computing. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262018067. OCLC 813929041. 

Interviewer: Thomas Lean, British Library

Date of Interview: 2010 Reference: C1379/17

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: This is a full oral history of the life of Frank Land as part of the British Libraries Oral History series on the life of selected British Computer scientists.

Repository: British Library, National Life Stories, an Oral History of British Science

Type of recorder: Marantz PMD661 on secure digital Recording format: WAV 24 bit 48 kHz Total no. of tracks 18 Stereo Total Duration: 15 hours:06 minutes:31 seconds

Transcript: http://sounds.bl.uk/related-content/TRANSCRIPTS/021T-C1379X0017XX-0000A0.pdf

Copyright/Clearance: No restrictions except for the following sections: track 1 [between 35:38 – 35:58, and 40:36 – 41:26], track 4 [between 31:46 – 34:56], track 8 [between 13:04 – 13:15 and 47:20 – 49:19], track 9 [between 18:21 – 18:41, 20:20 –

20:21, 01:02:54 – 01:03:31 and 01:08:31 – 01:09:46] and track 13 [between

18:10 – 19:11] which are closed for 30 years (until March 2041)

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Frank Land as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/

Repository: Interview Text: Dropbox LEO Interviews https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&qsid=75695419906493629711857519034651&query=frank+land+google&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Professor Alan Eardley

Date of Interview: 21.02.2016

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Professor Alan Eardley interviewed and filmed Frank Land as part of his collection of material on the history of computing for his inaugural lecture at Stafford University, April 14th 2016.

Repository: Pre-Interview response to interview questions: Dropbox LEO Interviews https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Frank+Land+Feb+2016+unedited.doc&qsid=80177254035542482665344419183340&query=frank+land&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Interview and Video: Editing in process

Copyright: Alan Eardley

Restrictions: Interview and video will be available to members of LEO Computer Society

Interviewer: Paul Jagger, Director Archive IT

Date of Interview: 22.05.2018

Editor: Helen Carter, ArchiveIT

Role in LEO: Programmer, Systems Analyst, Marketing, Consultant

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Archives IT are conducting and archiving interviews of UK individuals who have contributed to the development and evolution of IT. Frank Land has been added to the archive with a whole life interview. Ninian Eady is also in the archive.

Archive IT repository: http://archivesit.org.uk/interviews/frank-land/

LEO Computers Society Repository: https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interview%20transcripts/FRANK%20LAND%20by%20ArchivesIT.doc?role=personal

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite as part of LEO Computer Society’s Oral History Project

Date of Interview: 31st October 2011

Role in LEO: Bureau Manager, Export Manager

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Ralph joined the Lyons Teashop Division in 1953 as management accountant for the Teashops and transferred to LEO in 1954. He rose to manager of the LEO City Office followed by spells in promoting LEO exports in Paris and Dusseldorf before heading the LEO/English Electric team working in Eastern Europe including Soviet Russia. His subsequent career until retirement was with Rank-Xerox and Rolls Royce working on exports to Eastern Europe.

Text: Edited by Ralph Land and Hilary Caminer

Repositary: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ralph+Land+unedited.doc&qsid=73304227362417986503993819006613&query=ralph+land&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ralph+Land+audio+MP3.eml&qsid=34528291897312889742744536166909&query=ralph+land+mp3&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.


Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2 011

Role in LEO: Bureau Manager, Export Manager

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Ralph Land as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry/

Repository: Interview Text: to be completed

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Google

Date of Interview: 21.11.2011

Role in LEO: Design Engineer, head of engineering procurement

Joined LEO: 1949

Abstract: Google interviewed and filmed a number of old LEO employees including Ernest Kaye as part of the celebration at the Science Museum of the 60th anniversary of the roll out of the first business application on the LEO I computer. Narrated by Georgina Ferry.


Interview Text:

Type of recorder:

Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrn24SdW64I

Copyright: Google Free to view.

Interviewer: Thomas Haigh

Date of interview: 2007

Role in LEO: Mathematical Programmer

Joined LEO: 1962

Abstract: Chris Date, well known for his work on Data Base theory and practice started his career with LEO in 1962 – 1967, and provides a description of his experience on pages 7 - 9 of the transcript of the interview. Very complimentary about LEO

Repository: Computer History Museum, California

- 51 pages

Link to Museum: http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102658166

Copyright: Computer History Museum CHM Reference number: X4090.2007

Interviewer: Janet Abbate

Date of Interview: September 2001

Role in LEO: Programmer on LEO I and LEO II/I

Joined LEO: 1953

Abstract: Betty joined Lyons as a labour cost clerk in the Statistical Office in September 1949. In 1953 she was selected for a LEO appreciation course, and as a result was offered a job as a programmer on LEO I. Despite scepticism about what LEO would be able to do she accepted the offer. She worked on a number of applications – payroll under Mary Blood (Coombs) and Tea Blending under Frank Land. She gained a reputation as a sound and reliable programmer. She left LEO to work as a programmer with EverReady before leaving to start a family.

Reference: http://ethw.org/Oral-History:Betty_Cooper

LEO Computers Society: Oral History Project

The LEO Computers Society has initiated an Oral History Project assisted by funding from the Association for Information Technology (AIT) Trust. Recordings and edited transcripts are held in LEO Dropbox archives. They can be accessed and downloaded by selected members of LEO Computers Society only. The list of Oral Histories taken to-date (January 2016) includes:

Interviewer: John Hoey

Date of Interview: 23/07/2014

Role in LEO: Programmer

Joined LEO: 1959

Abstract: Alan received degree in mathematics and after National Service joined Armstrong Siddeley as a programmer on a Ferranti Mark I. The company’s merger with another aircraft manufacturer led to his leaving and joining LEO. He worked on the LEO II at Standard Motors, but in 1963 joined Peter Gyngell in Australia working with a number of LEO computers sold in Australia and later with EELM and then ICL; finishing his career in 1996 as a very senior member of the successor companies working in an administrative and legal capacity.

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: Part1: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+Part+1+audio.mp3&qsid=31162631801321269845628828947601&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Part 2: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+Part+2+audio.mp3&qsid=31162631801321269845628828947601&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3/4

Text: Edited Transcripts, Part 1 and 2 Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Alan+Sercombe+edited+P2.docx&qsid=10543217434440878150799352370356&query=alan+sercombe&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: 26/04/1012

Role in LEO: Computer Operator

Joined LEO: October 1961

Abstract: John was an operator in the LEO II bureau and then did acceptance trials for LEO III systems in the Minerva Road factory before moving onto System 4 trials and software development.  His oral history covers the role of operators in the early days.  He progressed through ICL until retirement as a senior consultant in 2002. Active member of LEO Computers Society

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Daines+audio.wav&qsid=85116196848144396245617180699123&query=john+daines&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Edited Text: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Daines+Edited+P2.odt&qsid=55626073051723543599179871883696&query=john+daines&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: MP3/4

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview: 17.04.2012

Role in LEO: Statistician

Joined LEO:

Abstract: Mathematics degree from Imperial College, followed after National Service by Masters in Statistics from LSE. Joined Lyons Maid (Ice Cream division of J. Lyons) working on weather based Ice Cream forecasting. Helped define LEO Ice Cream sales job, later working on bakery sales. Remained an employee of J. Lyons.

Repository: Partially edited Transcript: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Simon+Benedictus+Unedited.doc&qsid=28924991798288976813310853533124&query=simon+benedictus&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Part 1: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Oral%20History%20Recordings/Simon%20Benidictus%20interview?preview=BENIDICTUS+PT1.m4a

Part 2: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Oral%20History%20Recordings/Simon%20Benidictus%20interview?preview=BENIDICTUS+PT2.m4a

Recording: MP3/4

Text: Dropbox Unedited Transcripts Part 1 &2 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Simon+Benedictus+Unedited.doc&qsid=28523817330004498807401206891638&query=simon&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Interviewer: Tim-Greening Jackson

Date of Interview: 22.05.2008

Role in LEO: Computer Programmer, Systems Analyst

Joined LEO: December 1954

Abstract: Roger left Mill Hill school in 1950 to self-study to become an actuary but in 1954 responded to an advertisement for a programmer job at Cadby Hall. Joined LEO aged 22, the then youngest programmer. Rapid progress led to him being given the British Rail station to station distancing job working with John Gosden under David Caminer. The oral history is confined to his early career and the details of the BR job. A text-only Part 1 to the composite oral history provides a summary of his career to retirement. His career after leaving LEO in 1957 included managing the LEO 2/9 at Ilford Limited, working for Ford Motor Company and rising to head much of their European Computer organisation, and finishing his career as a private consultant.

Repository: Audio Recording: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Roger+Coleman+unedited.pdf&qsid=92892594060940537749377287578228&query=roger+coleman&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Composite Oral History: Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Roger+Coleman+Composite+edited+P2.doc&qsid=92892594060940537749377287578228&query=roger+coleman&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Windows Media Player

Copyright: Tim Greening-Jackson, but unrestricted access permitted subject to due acknowledgements.

Restrictions: None Known

Interviewer: Tony Morgan Died 2017

Date of Interview: 16.08.2011

Role in Lyons: Systems Research Office, then Lyons Computer Services

Joined Lyons: Autumn 1959

Abstract: Alan studied Classics at Oxford and on graduating was taken on by Lyons in their Systems Research Office. A career working on a number of the Lyons LEO application followed by a senior role in Lyons Systems Services, formed to develop and service computer applications first on LEO machines and later when Lyons replaced LEO with IBM computers. Acting Chief Executive Institute of Administrative Management.


Text: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/Leo%20Interviews?preview=Alan+King+edited+P2.doc

Edited Text: Dropbox. https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=Alan+King+edited+P2.doc

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: John Daines Died November 2016

Date of Interview: 27.04.2012

Role in Lyons: Programmer

Joined Lyons: 1959

Abstract: Joined as trainee programmer after being offered jobs by Elliott computing and English Electric.. Worked on many projects including British Oxygen. Despite temptation to join other companies remained with LEO and its successor companies working in a senior capacity on a number of Government projects and after retirement working as a consultant to ICL and its associated companies. Active in LEO Computers Society until his death.


Text: Partially edited transcript in dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Hennessy+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07905257361119047631689560727569&query=ray+hennessy&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Hennessy+audio.wav&qsid=07905257361119047631689560727569&query=ray+hennessy&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: 08.11.2011

Role in Lyons: Commissioning Engineer

Joined Lyons: December 1947

Abstract: Joined LEO as engineer. Spent most of his career as commissioning engineer on LEO IIs and IIIs, finishing as senior commissioning engineer. In retirement LEO Computer Society’s expert on all matters relating to LEO hardware. Active Member of LEO Computers Society

Text Repository: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Tony+Morgan+edited+P2.doc&qsid=06562942885418735087845356680765&query=tony+morgan&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Text: Transcript being currently edited by Tony Morgan


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite Died: August 2016

Date of Interview:

Role in LEO: Manager training and customer support

Joined LEO: February 1956:

Abstract: Trained as electronic engineer as part of National Service. After working as an electronic research engineer in Civil Service, recruited by LEO as trainee maintenance engineer. Took responsibility for training customer engineers and rose to oversee all LEO training as well as managing engineering maintenance services/ Briefly left LEO to become management consultant but returned to become head of customer services for EELM. Retired 1988.

Repository: Unedited transcript of recording in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=bob+gibson+unedited+transcript.doc Edited Transcript in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Bob+Gibson+edited+P2.doc&qsid=21711540675593191009762985903592&query=bob+gibson&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview: 6th December 2011

Joined Lyons: December 1949

Role in Lyons: Management Trainee to management accountant

Joined LEO: April 1956

Role in LEO: Programming, and education to head of marketing

Abstract: Born in Liverpool, educated at grammar school, took Mathematics at Kings College, Cambridge. Then National Service finishing with rank of Captain. Joined Lyons as a Management Trainee in 1949, rose to management rank in the Lyons Work Office as cost accountant. Selected to join LEO in 1956. Long and distinguished career with many roles including education, staff selection, sales and marketing finishing as head of marketing before retirement. Active sportsman, including playing soccer for Cambridge University.


Text: Dropbox Edited Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Doug+Comish+edited+P2.docx&qsid=62813332913772013628023522491317&query=doug+comish&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview:

Role in LEO: Commissioning and Design Engineer

Joined LEO: Spring 1957

Abstract: Took Science degree at Imperial College after national service in RAF. Joined LEO after seeing an advertisement. Steve worked as a commissioning engineer first on LEO II machines including commissioning the Bull Printer on LEO II/3 and subsequently on LEO II machines. Achieved rank of Chief Engineer for LEO III. Involved in design of the abandoned LEO IV after merger with English Electric. Subsequent career from 1965 with Medical Research Council working as a design engineer.

Repository: Edited transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Steve+Farrow+edited+P2.odt&qsid=63426424578581135909584747883713&query=steve+farrow&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer John Daines

Date of Interview: 27th September 2016

Role in LEO: Design Engineer, Project Manager

Joined LEO: 1949

Abstract: Joined Pinkerton as a design engineer, rising to senior design engineer for LEO I and II. Left LEO in 1956 to work with John Bennet in Australia at Sydney University. A distinguished career as project manager and design engineer with ICL followed including work on communication Systems. Retired in 1981 but carried on working as private consultant.

Repository: Dropbox

Text: Unedited Transcript located at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Shaw+by+John+Daines+unedited.docx&qsid=18439443641769828588990205651972&query=ray+shaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ray+Shaw+interview+with+John+Daines+Sept+27th+2016.WAV&qsid=18439443641769828588990205651972&query=ray+shaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Martin Garthwaite

Date of Interview: 31.01.2012

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant, Manager

Joined LEO : 1960

Abstract: As a mathematics graduate Neil chose LEO when offered jobs in the computing industry. Started work at Hartree House working on Army Payroll, joined team at Renold Chains and subsequently recruited to join Peter Gyngell in Australia. Rapid rise post merger to become Managing Director of ICL Australia at age 37. Left company to work on executive recruitment and retired at age 50.


Text: Dropbox. Edited Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Neil+Lamming+edited+P2.docx&qsid=13314278810110130718813652649947&query=neil+lamming&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: Leo Computers Society.

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Peter Byford

Date of Interview: October, 2015

Role Lyons:

Joined Lyons:





Copyright: Leo Computers Society.


Interviewer: Ray Hennessy

Date of Interview: April 2016

Joined LEO: 1954

Abstract: Joined LEO following Mathematics degree at Oxford University and National Service. Started as programmer under Leo Fantl working on mainly mathematical applications on LEO I. Spend whole career with LEO and successor companies as a senior application and software programmer retiring aged 60.

Repository: Transcript of recording and first edit of transcript (Alan Hooker) in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ernest+Roberts+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07744281890109968756581823532303&query=ernest+roberts&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions None known

Interviewer: Cyril Platman

Date of Interview: 11th April 2016

Joined LEO: Circa 1953-55

Abstract: After grammar school started training as an accountant, but decided to try something else and was interviewed by David Caminer, and Tony Barnes and offered a job with LEO I as an operator. Worked on LEO I, LEO II and LEO III. Became shift leader and then Chief Operator. Left LEO in 1974 to join Access at Southend. Retired aged 60.

Repository: Edited transcript of recording in Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Derek+Jolly+edited+P2.doc&qsid=26418865507404425279799032559688&query=derek+jolly&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions None known

Interviewer: Tony Morgan Died: September 2017

Date of Interview: 6th September 2016

Joined Lyons: 1964

Abstract: After a career in the Merchant Navy achieving his Masters certificate ‘discovered’ computing, studied programming and applied for Jobs in computing. Interviewed by Lyons for an operator job and joined Lyons 1964 as an operator on the LEO III. Promoted rapidly to Operations Manager, then overall Systems Manager. After retirement became interested in the history of Lyons and in the LEO story resulting in the publication of his books on LEO and subsequently on Lyons the Food Empire.

Repository: Edited Interview Transcript https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Bird+edited+P2.odt&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+bird&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of Interview: November 2nd 2016

Joined LEO: 1962

Abstract: Joined as a mathematical working on linear programming transportation applications. Long career with LEO and its successor companies working at various locations including Hartree House and subsequently Kidsgrove. His work involved hardware and software design as well as applications and he finished with the title of Chief Engineer. Appointed visiting Professor at Southampton University. Regarded his early learning of CLEO as a key step in his understanding of design in his later career.

Repository: Unedited transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+unedited.docx&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Recording: Part 1 and 2 MP3 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+Part+1+audio.MP3&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D and https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Wharton+Part+2+audio.MP3&qsid=39281849731538282739464284144902&query=peter+wharton&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Mike Storey

Date of Interview: 4th April 2016, Transcribed 2nd February 2017

Joined LEO 1955

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant

Abstract: Paul Dixon, a refugee from Czechoslovakia (Prague) in 1947, graduated from Manchester University with an honours degree in Economics and Politics. Intrigued by an advertisement for programmers, applied, was interviewed by Peter Hermon and joined LEO Computers as a programmer. Although only with LEO for two years had a rapid rise ranging over a range of applications. Joined Roger Coleman at LEO II customer Ilford’s. Emigrated to Canada and later the USA for a career in computing, including very senior, and prominent positions with major companies.

Repository: Edited Transcript in Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/home/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEOSoc%20Oral%20History%20file%20uploads?preview=PAUL+DIXON+edited+P2.docx

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview: 7th February 2017

Joined LEO: 1958

Role in LEO: Maintenance Engineer LEO II

Abstract: A lively, chatty interview full of personal anecdotes relating to his life and work experiences. Concentrated on Maths at School and awarded scholarship to Cambridge. But opted to do National Service in Royal Signals, for two years, rising to rank of Lance Corporal. Opted for a degree in Physics at University of Birmingham, graduating with II/1. Saw LEO advert for engineers, taken on at Minerva Road and after training school became maintenance engineer on a range of LEO/IIs. Spent 3 years with LEO, then joined Honeywell as manager of software development. Subsequent career with Rank Xerox in marketing, as consultant with CACI, then working with James Martin and after a spell in Australia (1997), set up as independent consultant before retirement.

Transcribed: February 2017

Edited March 2017

Repository: Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Michael+Mills+edited+P2.doc&qsid=62766657683312337088935222380943&query=michael+mills&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Cyril Platman

Date of Interview: 27th July 2016

Joined LEO: 1958

Role in LEO: Commissioning and Maintenance Engineer LEO I and LEO III

Abstract: Received background training in Electronics doing his National Service in the Royal Air Force. Decided on career in that field after seeing an advert for trainee engineers from LEO. After training worked first as commissioning engineer on LEO II/7 than became site maintenance enginner on LEO II and LEO III sites including acting as chief engineer on Ilford’s LEO III.. Retired from ICL in 1969 to join an independent computer maintenance company working on LEO machines.

Edited Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Patrick+Blakes+edited+P2.doc&qsid=66660779201437156227048281367520&query=patrick+blakes&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Date of Interview: 6th December 2016

Transcribed: 27th December 2016

Editor: Bob Marsh received copy for editing 5th January 2017

Joined LEO: Summer 1955

Role in LEO: Design Engineer on LEO II

Abstract: Studies Natural Sciences at St Andrews, specially interested in Electronics. Commissioned in REME and posted to teach at Shrivenham, On discharge interviewed by Pinkerton and joined LEO engineering team in Olaf Street. Left LEO for a career in electronic control devices, but retained an interest in LEO. Joined LEO Computers Society and started collecting LEO memorabilia

Edited Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Ian+White+edited+P2.doc&qsid=07044367727534149534144072593442&query=ian+white&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: David Phillips

Joined LEO: Not clear. Worked on LEO III/6 Shell-Mex and BP in 1965 as part of site engineering team

Role in LEO: Maintenance Engineer

Date of Interview: 16th February 2017

Transcribed: 19th February 2017

Editor: David Phillips is undertaking a first edit of the transcript of a very confusing and chronologically muddled interview. Tony Earnshaw will be asked to re-edit the revised script.

Abstract: Worked as untrained TV repair man in 1950s, Spotted by passing LEO engineer, invited to apply to LEO. Started work as assistant to site engineers on the Shell-Mex and BP LEO III in Hemel Hampstead. Prides himself on his successful career as an engineer without having acquired any qualifications. Rose to be chief site engineer at Minerva Road responsible for seven sites. Left ICL to become independent engineer,

Transcript: first edit by David Phillips at https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Tony+Earnshaw+unedited.docx&qsid=21816248812713184251072359666087&query=tony+earnshaw&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewer: Neville Lyons

Joined LEO: September 1955

Role in LEO: Programmer, Consultant

Date of Interview: 15th June 2017

Transcribed: 28th June 2017

Editor: Bob Marsh. Edited version to Dropbox 7th July 2017

Abstract: Peter Hermon joined LEO after he obtained first class honours from St. John’s Oxford, and seeing an advertisement for a mathematician from J. Lyons. He was one of the most brilliant LEO recruits and quickly made his mark as a programmer and consultant. He was involved in a number of LEO sales, working first with Wills Tobacco and later with Dunlop Rubber. He joined Dunlop to first run their LEO installation, but subsequently rose to head Dunlop Management Services world-wide. He moved to BOAC where he was responsible for the development of BOADICEA the airline reservation system which became a major UK success story and later became a Director of British Airways. After retirement in 1989 he became an active member of the LEO Foundation, acting as its treasurer. Peter’s other interests were walking in North Wales and he has published a number of guides for walking in Wales.

Location of Transcript: https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Peter+Hermon+edited+P2.doc&qsid=96985580077109303538682721508938&query=peter+hermon&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewee: Peter Byford DOB: 1944

Editor: Frank Land, May 2018

Abstract: Peter had a long career in computing starting when he left Grammar School aged just 17 and following an advertisement applied to LEO Computers Limited. Passing the aptitude test as the sole non-graduate applicant at that time, he was trained as a programmer to work on the LEOIII/1 Hartree Service Bureau. He worked on a number of applications, rising in seniority, but left LEO in 1965 to join the AA as a programmer and data analyst. His subsequent career, primarily in Data Management included a 27 year stint at Eastern Gas, followed by the software contractor and consultant John Hoskins, and later as an independent contractor/consultant. Despite his relatively short stint at LEO at the beginning of his career, it is to his LEO roots he returned on retirement. After attending an early LEO reunion he took over the chair of the LEO Computers Society, and oversaw its growth to over 800 members (May 2018), and continues to fill that role with undiminished enthusiasm.

Interviewee: Brian Mills DOB: 1933

Interviewer: David Phillips

Date of Interview:

Editor: Frank Land, September 2018

Joined LEO: July 8th 1957

The following entries are to be completed:

Interviewee: John Page DOB: 1944

Interviewer: Dag Spicer

Date of Interview: April 11th 2017

Joined LEO: 1958?

Role in LEO: Joined as apprentice engineer in Minerva Road, became commissioning engineer, and chief commissioning engineer on a number of LEO IIIs

Left LEO: Made redundant after formation of ICL

Interviewee: Ian Bruce DOB: 1947

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Role in LEO

Date of Interview: 5th July 2017

Interviewee: Ninian Eadie DOB: 15.3.1937

Interviewer: John Ferguson

Date of Interview: 6th October 2017

Joined LEO: January 1961

Role in LEO:

Interviewee: Ninian Eadie (2)

Interviewer: Archives IT

Repository: http://archivesit.org.uk/interviews/ninian-eadie/

Interviewee: Jean Elliott DOB:

Interviewer: Elisabetta Mori

Joined LEO: Probably 1948/49 having been a Lyons clerk

Role in LEO: Clerical assistant to John Pinkerton

Abstract: One of the earliest to join the LEO team as a clerical assistant involved in a variety of tasks such as filing and note taking for the design team comprising John Pinkerton, Ray Shaw Ernest Kaye and Ernest Lenaerts. Even permitted to do some soldering. Always remembers with great fondness working with LEO

Transcript of Interview:


Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None known

Interviewee: Mike Gifford DOB: 1936

Interviewer: Dag Spicer

Date of Interview: 30th September 2017

Editors: Bob Marsh (P1) and Frank Land (p2) Nov 2017

Joined LEO: 1959 or 1960

Role in LEO: Started as temporary assistant at Minerva Road, the trained as consultant at Hartree House and rose rapidly working as consultant in a variety of locations including the Midlands, North West London ICL region. Finishing work with ICL as Chief Executive of ICL Australia for two and a half years, before leaving computer industry.

Left LEO/ICL: 1975


Interviewee: Geoff Pye DOB: 1932

Interviewer: Paul Bygrave

Date of Interview: 3rd August, 2017

Interviewee: Barry Fox DOB: 1935

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of Interview: 19th July 2017

Interviewee: Margaret Fox (James when she joined LEO)

Interviewer: John Daines

Date of interview: 19th July 2017

Editor: Hilary Caminer

Interviewee: Michael Jackson

Interviewer: Elisabetta Mori

Date of interview: 25th July 2018

Interviewee: Brian Mills D.O.B: 1933

Interviewer: David Philips

Date of Interview: 27.02.2018

Editor: Frank Land

Archive: Dropbox at


Pending Oral Histories

Tony Denton

Interviewer: John Paschoud

Dave Rocke

Interviewer: John Daines

Alan Jacobs

Interviewer: Ralph Land

Don Riley

Interviewer: Ralph Land

Vince Bodworth

Interviewer: Peter Byford

WEJ Parry

Interviewer: Jean Elliott

John Godwin

Interviewer: Bernard Behr via Skype to South Africa

Norman Witkin

Interviewer: Bernard Behr via Skype to South Africa

Leonard Letton

Interviewer: Mike Hally

Georgina Ferry Transcripts:

Georgina Ferry has donated the unedited transcripts of the people she interviewed for her book A Computer called LEO to the Heritage Project of the LEO Computers Society. The following interviewees are included:

Anthony Salmon, Maurice Wilkes, David Wheeler, Murray Laver, David Caminer, John Pinkerton, Ernest Kaye, Ray Shaw, Derek Hemy, Peter Hermon, John Aris, Mary Coombs, Ralph Land, Frank Land (incomplete first half of transcript lost)


Abstract: Maurice Bonney was a mathematician who had early experience of working with LEO as head of a group of programmers involved with aerodynamic calculations for missile technology working in the British aircraft industry, and using LEO as a bureau facility. Later in his career he worked for Renold Chains on their LEO III as chief programmer. He subsequently joined academia In Operations Management finishing his academic career as Professor of Operations Management. He spent much of his academic career working on Computer Aided Design producing significant innovative research.

He has written a substantial memoir about his career including his LEO experiences. The memoir, still undergoing revisions, is stored in the LEO Dropbox archive, https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Maurice+Bonney+memoir.doc&qsid=53814489983096573199242543471538&query=maurice+bonney&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

I changed the focus of my career several times and I am now semi-retired and paid to work 1 day per week at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

I recall various people from 1966-68 in addition to Pinkerton and Winterbottom. Ernest Lenaerts was around Minerva Road then; I did meet you very briefly and various other luminaries of the time but I’m sure you won’t remember me. Ann Cropper and I were involved in the start of the British Computer Society “Display group”, and our paper was based on a talk I gave in one of the early meetings of that group.


It all started when Wendy Craig woke me up with “A Cup of Tea and Lyons Tea Shops” ……

I was dozing on the settee when I became aware of LEO on the screen and Wendy Craig uttering the words Lyons Electronic Office.

Acronyms, acronyms … they are a part of everyday life and the acronym LEO reminded me that in 1963

I chanced into the world of computing when my first job was as a Computer Operator for Shell Mex and BP on their new LEO 326 machines in Hemel Hempstead. What an introduction, right at the cutting edge of the brave new world! 1024 words of 40 bit memory, made up of a matrix of magnetic rings each threaded on three wires which made it look rather like a thread-bare tapestry on a plastic frame about 12 inches square. You could SEE the bits in each WORD.

Sept 63…… Love, love me do

A wonderfully air-conditioned room with two LEO 326’s: each with 8 tape decks, 2 paper tape readers, a paper tape punch, card reader, card punch, two printers, main console and Engineer’s Control panel. The place was jammed by trolleys filled with the input for the jobs - mag tapes to read, some work tapes for the sorts, mag tapes for output into the next job and paper tape with daily sales tickets to be read by the Elliott Readers. This tape was punched from the handwritten dockets sent from the depots where the road tankers filled up with diesel or petrol.

I remember we had one operator on Mag Tapes, one on Peripherals, one on Buttons.

The cry rang out - “Allocate mag tape on Channel 2 Route 2: Printer on 6/1: Paper Tape output on 7/1” The job started and the P/T began to fly through the reader into a large metal bin. Mag tapes inched forward, reports printed out, reel after reel of P/T filled the bin. Don’t lose the end – it’s all got to be rewound in case the job fails or the tape needs to be dibbed.

The jobs failed sometimes due to mis-punches in the P/T so out with the dibber and the black-tape to re-punch a character or two. One day a reel stopped repeatedly just after a splice point, the data prep girls had joined two reels together. However the second tape had been turned over and joined upside down to the first one. The sprocket holes seemed to match but the 2-track side had been joined to the 3-track side and carefully trimmed to make a neat splice so it looked like the 5-track tape was supposed to look.

Another day came the words – “I bet you can’t hit the big red EMERGENCY STOP on the Engineer’s panel from here with that reel of black and sticky”…. Zooom……Ooops……. Silence except for “You’ve won the prize, Jim!” Then the problem was how to doctor the console log to cover up the re-run time.

July 64…. Please, please me

The task now was to learn Assembler, then CLEO for writing programmes. Wow, a step up the employment ladder. The DSR – Dealer Site Record -with filling station information covering the number of pumps, A-road or B-road, car dealership, gallonage for the storage tanks, throughput per week, location and so on. Did you know there are even waterside filling stations for barges? Then began my introduction to a look-up table to check the map reference was correct for the site. It was planned to use this to work out the best road route for the tanker from the depot to each filling station and back to the depot – this was leading edge use of computers and might save money. The edge of the whole country was set up in map references so garage could be mistakenly put in the sea somewhere! In fact this routing idea was too heavy on computing calculation and, anyway, the tanker drivers were the experts on minimising the road miles. Development deferred!

Oh, the elapsed time it took to get a compilation and test of the programme back from the machine! One turn round every three days only to find there was a simple coding error. There were too many programmers, too many mistakes and too much operational work for the hours in the day. But the LEOs proved their worth and SMBP’s profitability rose.

Sep 65 … What’s new Pussycat?

I bade farewell to Hemel and enrolled on the Computer Science degree at Hatfield, which had 2 periods of 6 months working in a business during the 4-year course. But now the computer (I hesitate to use the word) was an Elliott 803B, all paper tape and not a mag tape to be seen. However it did have long-life plasticised paper tape from which to load the operating system! Output had to be via paper tape and then printed via a Teletype. Still I learned a lot. At the start of year 2 it was back to Hemel for 6 months commercial experience working on another programme. All acronyms were related to the sales and delivery world of the oil industry in the UK. Then other languages, FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol and more needed to be mastered.

Mar 1968 ….. Come on baby light my fire…..

..I spent time somewhere else…. NO, not at Her Majesty’s Pleasure!

Aug 1969 ….. Zebedee time

EELM had lost the sales battle to Univac at the Shell site. The machines had changed to become Univac 1100’s with the FASTRAND storage device holding an infinite amount of information so you wouldn’t need to store information on mag tapes anymore….. wait a moment, what was that saying about systems expanding to fill the available storage? We were soon back using mag tapes and there were too many programmers developing too many programmes and too many operational programmes to run in the available time.
What goes round comes around, things don’t really change do they…..? Which brings me in a roundabout way to the time I witnessed Real Magic. The office block had a magnificent view of the junction where six roads met. A scaffold tower went up in the middle, six large white blobs appeared at the end of each road and many concentric circles were drawn. At five minutes to four o’clock the High Priest climbed the Tower holding a megaphone. Work stopped and our windows were crowded with baffled observers. His yellow-jacketed assistants hovered on the kerbs and at precisely 4pm they leapt into action to make a Magic Roundabout. Two lanes each way and six mini-roundabouts later it soon slowed the traffic to a crawl but after a few days the locals became accustomed to it and they zoomed round. In at road 1 go left to road 2 or 3, it’s quicker to go right to 5 and 6, but which way to road 4? … end of my SMBP involvement….

Worked in the Johannesburg Bureau from 1964 until 1986 when I moved to the then holding company. Originally we were part of the Rand Mines Group of companies. The mining houses were our main customers for whom we ran payrolls, stores and share transfers. For full reminiscences see https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/John%20Godwin%20brief%20bio.doc?role=personal

I notice that you have an error regarding the attribution of II/6.  The Government Pensions activity never had their own machine, having used one of other of the LEO-owned machines that operated as a service bureau. (Editors note: Goodwin’s assertion cannot be sustained as a number of LEO Computers Society members including commissioning engineers tell of visiting the LEO II/6 at the Ministry of Pensions offices in Newcastle)

When I went on my programming course at Whiteley's , we were presented with a list that detailed the owners & locations of the LEO computers; that list omitted II/6, & in response to our enquiries about that, an evasive reply advised us that the presenter was not able to disclose that (so of course we all knew where the machine had been deployed). That machine was actually purchased by another Government activity - the Foreign Office, for one of their activities whose existence was never disclosed; that machine was actually located at Cheltenham, & certain of our engineers were required to work on that machine as required.  I never heard of the fate of that machine, but I expect that it was simply scrapped - like all the others & no mention if it is included in any information published by Bletchley Park (it took over the work of the 11 Colossus machines). (Perhaps it's still there?)

It was quite amazing just how much work those machines could achieve, even using punched-card for input & output of master files (some using pure binary), supported by a room full of ancillary punched-card appliances (sorters, collators, punches & interpreters + an IBM 407 tabulating machine - that I programmed using huge re-wirable plug-boards!  Modern machines seem to be no more efficient, due to the increased bit usage plus masses of bloatware, & general incompetence of system designers & programmers.  Our programmes were coded to run using pure-binary code, but the compiler would accept decimal input & convert to binary for execution, but I had to decode the binary & perform modifications by 'patching' in binary.

I worked on our LEO until it was replaced by an IBM 1410 in November 1963, & I supported & worked on a series of other machines until 2000 C.E. when I accepted early retirement, but continued working as a consultant - even to the present day.  Our replacement machine was eventually replaced by a Honeywell 2200 + a 120, in a dishonest attempt to gain the company's business by a bunch of fraudsters, since the machines were rip-off's of the IBM 1410/7010 &c., & the software merely stolen directly; compiling a programme in Cobol, resulted in a fatal error unless the computer used was declared to be an IBM 1410 or 7010; that machine got thrown-out prior to launch, when it was found that it was not up to the claimed performance, & would take 28 hours per day to run the existing workload then currently performed on the IBM 1410; we replaced the IBM 1410 with an IBM 360-50, running in IBM 7010 emulation mode; I wrote the Post Mortem programme for it!, & spent many week-ends running both new & old machines concurrently 24 hours per day, unassisted & unaccompanied, to develop new programmes for our entire Accounting systems; people would have a fit nowadays, if anyone attempted that! The above account is archived in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/John%20Goodwin%20reminiscences.docx?role=personal

Valerie Grose   I had the somewhat dubious distinction of being the first girl in London to complete the Gold level of the Duke of Edinburgh's Scheme (only because I was in the first intake of girls to start when it was introduced). On the photograph I am showing Mr & Mrs Simmons the work two younger girls are engrossed in leading to the Bronze stage.   It was divided into four sections:  Service to the community, Adventure, Hobbies and practical skills.  Under hobbies I spotted driving a car and asked my manager what that entailed as few had a car at the time.  Please laugh (or not) but a man was paid to take me out on Saturday mornings, in a company car, to teach me.  No matter how long it took: the objective being for me to pass the test.  I made my way to Cadby Hall to meet George, plus car, and then I drove to my home in Ealing where my mother had coffee and buns ready for us.  George had a cigarette and after chatter together I drove back to CH.  We spun it out for about six months and I then passed.  Although I went to work everyday with only two weeks holiday, that company was pretty good to me.  What a privilege to have had my office (when eventually promoted to senior secretary) opposite that of Mr Simmons with TRT's alongside.  Mr Pinkerton and Mr Caminer had offices elsewhere but were frequently seen heading to Mr Simmons' office.  One day Diane (a colleague) and I were called upon to serve tea in his oak panelled office to a group of a dozen or so gentlemen.  I was going on holiday next day (he must have been told that by someone).  He stopped the meeting, excuse me gentlemen, Valerie I understand you are going on holiday tomorrow. May I ask where to if you are going away. The Isle of Wight with my parents.  He then wished me a pleasant time.   My completion of the Award took me to the office of Sir Samuel Salmon who presented me with "The Ascent of Everest". I still have it on my bookshelf.  I met Sir John Hunt and when four more girls completed the Gold level we were invited for lunch at the House of Commons with the MP for Hammersmith, Mr Compton Carr.  So....I never was a "LEO" but had that close association with the key players.  I have spoken to one or two people at the reunions who were LEOs but who never met the "gentlemen". I feel very fortunate.  KR Valerie  I know so many widows, I feel I am now a member of "that" Society.  Had Tony have lived, his onward journey would not have been pleasant (wheelchair and incontinent) so I have to come to terms with the outcome being, for him, the kindest thing. 
My file was on the table with lots of other items/memorabilia.  I removed a couple items that I can always return.  I must say, in all honesty, at the time I had no idea of the role of Mr Simmons.  Like several other "pinstripe-suited" gentleman he was just a very senior manager to whom we younger employees showed great respect.  He was the Comptroller but what exactly that was we knew not:  just the head of the clerical workings of J Lyons, in the same way that schools have a headmaster (or mistress). I'm not entirely sure I had awareness of his LEO importance/connection.  When Messrs Caminer, Pinkerton and Thompson dashed along the corridor heading to room 23 (Mr Simmons office) I suppose we thought it was the weekly audience, such as the Prime Minister has with Her Majesty the Queen.  I was once, with another staff member, called upon to serve tea to various managers in his office.  Whilst we poured then delivered to each person, they carried on talking but Mr Simmons said, "excuse me a moment, gentlemen": Valerie I believe you are going on holiday tomorrow, are you going away?  With my parents we were heading to the Isle of Wight.  He wished me a very nice time.  His secretary, Miss Margery Slack went to Tangier.  We lesser mortals thought she was on some other planet:  way out of our reach.  Tony was with British Airways and we returned from Washington on Concorde.  Never as a young girl could I have imagined such arrangements.  Neither could I have imagined being part of these LEO gatherings in such a grandiose building as Middle Temple Hall.  I don't have photos that Mr Simmons took: just one with me explaining the Duke of Edinburgh's award to he and Mrs Simmons.  Another manager, Mavis Leopold was the wife of Michael, nephew of Reginald  Leopold who conducted the Sunday evening Palm Court orchestra programme.  A Mrs Greenall, personnel manager and Miss Buzzey, secretary to the Chief Accountant, together with Mrs Simmons all had manicures, regular hair appointments, bags and shoes like Footaballers' wives have nowadays (Several thousand per item: equivalent in those days).  Something we younger ones could only admire and dream of.  It all seems like another world but of course is the memory of the early days of my life.  The Lyons whole operation was very labour-extensive.  Would Mr Simmons nowadays have no need of his secretary and just communicate on his mobile and iPad?  Maybe the wages and salaries to so many thousands of staff (9000 at Cadby Hall, I recall) perhaps be part of the downfall of the company?  Thankfully the organisation of the time enabled me to have an interesting and fulfilling career.  I feel very fortunate.

I will do my best. The meeting started when Norman Beasley retired from Lyons in/around 1982. Norman had been a member of Lyons/Leo from the early days and was Operations manager on LEO 1, LEO II/1, and LEO III/7 before becoming Computer Consultant to the Lyons group of companies.

Norman lived in Chalfont St Giles (I think this is correct) and Peter Bird (Lyons Programming Manager) and Alex Tepper (Lyons Operations manager) would go to visit him fairly frequently. Carol Hurst, who was at our meeting, also lived nearby and had also left Lyons would join the others making a foursome. In my Lyons career I started in Operations as an operator (employed by Norman) and later became a consultant working with Norman. When Alex Tepper was promoted to Head of Computing for Lyons I became Operations manager and joined the gathering.

All Lyons computer staff are quite a close knit group and various members moved into senior positions within other companies within the group as Accountants or Head of Computing, etc. Tony Thompson, who you met, became Chief Accountant for various companies, Alan King (now passed away) became head of Lyons Maid computing. They joined in our meetings and gradually as time went on our group has continued but with varying members, as old ones passed away others came to know of us and joined. Peter Bird was the mainstay organiser as he had the most contacts. Cyril Lanch is a fairly newcomer to our group but did not step back quick enough when volunteers were sought to carry on Peter’s organising! Hopefully that explains our group, now for the LEO/Lyons feelings – difficult!

History of Lyons and computers. Lyons built a computer to do work for Lyons Electronic Office (LEO), staff working on the computers were Lyons staff. With the success of computers Lyons formed a computer company LEO Computers Ltd but the staff although working for LEO were still Lyons staff at heart. When the company LEO was sold the computers remained at Lyons and were operated by Leo staff until they chose to remain at Lyons or were replaced by new Lyons staff.

Lyons computer history goes from LEO I through Leo II/1, LEO III/7, LEO 326/46 and eventually to IBM computers. Our attachment to LEO may be explained by the fact that the original computers were still in use at Lyons long after LEO had been sold and in many instances the staff working them were the original staff. When LEO was sold the computer department became LEO and METHODS, then Lyons Computer Services Ltd (LCS My best analogy would be: If you had a daughter and she got married she would still be your daughter and a member of your family although she would have joined another family, you would continue to be proud of her. The same is how our computer department feel.

When LEO was sold the computer department became LEO and METHODS, then Lyons Computer Services Ltd (LCS), and finally Lyons Information Systems Ltd (LIS).

As you may now gather we were very proud of our heritage but so was the computer industry. We as a Computer Bureau (which we had been from day 1 of computers) strived to continue to be at the forefront of computer usage and computer and peripheral manufacturers were very keen to be associated with us offering us very competitive deals to use their equipment. Our computer department was frequently put under the microscope by the main Lyons Board as the newer family Board members felt that computing was expensive but on every occasion the auditing companies, including IBM, were in awe as to how we are able to do so much with so little and still lead the world. An example of this was back when Lyons had a fire on the Xeronic Printer in the LEO III/7 computer room. We made an arrangement with the Post Office (as it was then) to use their LEO III (overnight) in Charles House which was just across the road from us. Our shift of 6 operators replaced a shift of 20+ operators.

I cannot remember the trade magazine that did a piece on us as we were the first company to wire an entire building with various departments on different floors to use Local Area Networks linked into the mainframe. Also, one of our external customers was a large American personal tax company which had a large computer centre in the States but wanted a worldwide centre based in London. We installed a duplicate of their system onto our computer, they provided no computing staff as all maintenance etc. would be done from the States we only had two user/managers with us. Their system was difficult for their users to manage and I spent a lot of time supporting them because of the complexity of their system. Eventually I volunteered to improve it for them and wrote a few simple programs and restructured their system making it much more efficient (saving hours a day of machine and their input time). The computer staff in America were interested in what I had done and came over to see for themselves, they were amazed and the CEO asked permission to adopt our version of their system to replace their own!

My own involvement with Lyons started while I was at school. My brother, Colin, whom you met was an operator at Lyons on LEO II/1 (but employed by LEO Computers) and I used to go with him to work some evenings or when I was not at school. I was able to help operate the LEO II computer (unofficially of course) and met the engineers on the LEO III/7. When Colin moved to Hartree House I also used to go there as well and helped out on the LEO III installed there. I loved the job and it really appealed to me so when I left school (in 1966) I went for interviews at Lyons and ICT (as it was then). Norman interviewed me and offered me the job (it helped that I knew several of the staff by name which impressed him!). I worked my way up from trainee operator to Ops Manager until the closure of the company in 1991. I won’t bore you with my life history of the roles I held and of the changes in company structure that I made over the years as most of this was during our IBM period.

I hope that this gives you some insight into our little group and our attachment to LEO and why we feel a little side-lined when at the LEO Computer Society gatherings Lyons seems to be irrelevant. Maybe that is changing now but at the few meetings I went to over the years that is how it seemed which is why I have never bothered joining

Both LEO 1 and the LEO 2s were not installed in cosy, air-conditioned palaces. They went into normal office accommodation and the heat, generated by the hundreds of thermionic valves was conducted away by fans and overhead ducting. The operators were kept cool only if they could open the office windows! This could cause a number of unexpected problems:

On LEO 1 rain could be a problem. It was necessary to look outside before turning anything on. If it was raining, or snowing, the heaters in the valves needed to be turned on before the cooling fans. This built up enough heat to ensure that the water droplets sucked in were vaporised before they hit a hot glass valve cover. Failure to do it this way round would result in a series of high pitched squeaks as the glass, of the valves cracked. This would be followed by the sound of engineers swearing! If there was no rain, it was better to get the cooling up and running first.

On LEO 2 this was not a problem. The ventilation system didn’t cause the computer much in the way of problems. The computer did provide a lot of heat, most of which was conducted away by the ventilation system. However, there was still a lot of peripheral equipment and human bodies churning out heat. The only option, certainly on LEO 2/1 was to open the windows to the outside world. Mostly this worked well. However, there were times when the outside world made its way into the operating area to cause chaos. Wildlife was one such problem. The occasional visiting bird could provide some distracting entertainment but the worst problem I can remember was a swarm of small insects which came in through the open windows and settled on the paper tapes and punched cards. They got squished into the holes in the cards and tapes changing the data.

Many years later I was working at a Post Office (now BT) site where a snake made its way through one of the doors from the outside world, down a short corridor and then got stuck between the automatic airlock doors into the air-conditioned computer hall.

Note: Colin Hobson was interviewed by Marie Hicks for her book Programmed Inequality (see above) and provides one of her case studies noting the story of LEO.

Text: https://www.dropbox.com/h

Joined LEO: 1966

Role in LEO: Site Maintenance Engineer LEO III; System 4

Abstract: Born in Northern Island, father miner, mother textile worker, moved with large family to village in Northumberland, failed 11+, educated in local elementary school till age of 15 without any qualifications or certificates. One brother was an apprentice electrician at a local pit and attended Carlisle Technical College one day a week. Joe taking a peek at his brother’s books became interested and he too became an apprentice electrician at a local coal mine and attending Carlisle Technical College where he gained his ONC in mathematics and Electronics at the highest level. In 1961 opted to join RAF as a Radar technician serving part of his time in Malta. On completing his service, having acquired a love for electronics, looked for a job with computers and in 1966 was taken on by EELM to train as maintenance engineer on LEO IIIs at Radley House. Notes the quality of training he received. “I loved evert minute of the course”. Moved to Scotland as site engineer on a LEO IIIs and System 4 machines. After a successful career left ICL in 1972 to work in a number of electronic companies, before setting up his own consultancy and completing an honours degree in mathematics at the Open University. Joe retired in 2009. Final words from a fascinating memoir: “For me, I think, LEO provided an environment and situation in which I could succeed in my own terms. I was doing work that I could understand, that I liked and that made sense to me. In a sense, that gave me an attitude of if I can understand and use a computer, I can learn to do anything. Thats a big thing to say about a company but I believe that, even then, it was a special sort of company with special people in it”.

Repository: Dropbox https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=Joe+McNulty+Memoir.doc&qsid=46282171009852707120531243657035&query=joe+mcnulty&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Abstract: Employed by Stewarts and Lloyds originally as engineer on their LEOII/3 computer and subsequently as programmer. Had received training as electrical engineer while doing extended National Service in RAF and in that capacity witnesses UK H bomb tests in Pacific Islands. Joined Stewarts and Lloyds at Corby after National Service and was transferred to help run the LEOII. Subsequently joined ICL. Has recently contributed to the Corby Heritage events commemorating, inter alia, to their story of LEO at Stewart & Lloyds. Provided two articles for the May 2018 “Legends” event, including John’s Story.

https://www.dropbox.com/preview/LEO%20Oral%20History%20project/LEO%20Memoirs%2C%20Reminiscences%20and%20Anecdotes/Mike%20Smith%20reminiscences.doc?role=personal or can be obtained on request from Frank Land – f.land@lse.ac.uk – or Mike Tyzack.

Reminiscences in 2 parts. Part 1 Life with LEO, part 2 pre and post LEO career

Joined LEO: 1960

Role in LEO: Design Engineer working with John Pinkerton

Abstract: John had a long career as a design engineer in the electronics industry, starting as electrician in the RAF after leaving School having specialised in Science and Maths. Followed up with Degree at Durham University. Later took MSc at Birmingham specialising in solid state physics and digital computing. Employed first by Lucas/CAV and then MIRA was head hunted to join the Data Recording and Instrument Company as Chief Engineer, a company associated with ICT. Left after contract dispute in 1960 to join LEO to work with John Pinkerton. Associated with a number of high level projects including a Government sponsored project on data transmission for the coming network age. Also heavily involved with the establishment of standards working with ECMA. Left LEO in 1969 as he felt the creation of ICL had emasculated the innovative LEO research team. Joined Farrington – another specialist in data recording, working partly in the USA. Finished career working in management department of Portsmouth Polytechnic. John provides a fascinating account of life as an enthusiastic design engineer as well as his appraisal of the people he worked with at LEO.

Repository: Dropbox Part 1 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Winterbottom+Memoirs.doc&qsid=73188041692784938776139646353975&query=winterbottom&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Part 2 https://www.dropbox.com/search/personal?path=%2F&preview=John+Winterbottom+memoirs+2.doc&qsid=73188041692784938776139646353975&query=winterbottom&search_token=maaZCi5EZfs9ghMHde3MaOmE5gIkeIs7mVlUbNhfSkQ%3D

Copyright: LEO Computers Society

Restrictions: None Known

Marie Hicks Twitter message:

In 1964 the inimitable @DameStephanie_ ran this job ad in @thetimes, seeking programmers for her startup. "Anti-feminists" need not apply--plus opportunities for women who'd "retired"


about the 1950s entitled The 1952 Show in honour of the Queen’s Jubilee. Episode 5 screened on March 30th at 9.15am. It featured the LEO story with an excellent interview of Ernest Kaye. See also http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01f9qw3/broadcasts/2012/03

The section featuring LEO and Ernest Kaye can be seen on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE6TX70A3Rc

The event received wide coverage including interviews on the BBC Today programme, BBC World Service, and BBC5 Live Outriders programme. It was also covered by the Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail website. A video interview of Georgina Ferry, Ernest Kaye, Mary Coombs, Ralph Land and Frank Land made for Google was also presented. The links below include reports in media, video recordings, radio recordings, photographs.




“You (UK) invented computers in both concept and practice. (It is not widely known, but the world’s first office computer was built in 1951 by Lyons’ chain of teashops!). Yet today none of the world’s leading exponents in these fields are from the UK”



of the paper’s campaign to "Make Britain Count" and in his comment on the interview repeats Eric Schmidt’s earlier notes on the role played by LEO in pioneering business computing. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/maths-reform/9288256/Make-Britain-Count-Google-head-Eric-Schmidt-supports-our-campaign.html

in December 2006, entitled The BRITISH CUPPA WITH WENDY CRAIG, and included a section on J. Lyons with its Corner Houses and Teashops. This included the story of LEO including an interview with Frank Land. See also http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/824846?view=synopsis and watch on http://www.ovguide.com/tv_episode/disappearing-britain-season-1-episode-3-the-british-cuppa-with-wendy-craig-536421

Brains which was broadcast on 30 October 2001. The programme was compiled by and fronted by Mike Hally and one of the four episodes featured the story of LEO. See http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/electronicbrains.shtml

the pioneering LEO enterprise. LEO: Making history. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/legacy/outriders/2011/11/leo_making_history.shtml

Home Movies on Sunday afternoons. The series will start on 9th November 2012 at 5.30. Several members have contributed to the series and Trevor Hughes's contribution is included in the first programme.

References to LEO will appear in the programme devoted to Work which will appear on Sunday November 30th at 5.30 pm.

Interviews with David Caminer and Peter Byford will be included with the LEO film and it will include some footage of a home movie taken by Brian Eaton in the sixties, of LEO 3 together with an interview with Brian.

An episode of Revolutionaries, a co-production of the Computer History Museum, Silicon Valley and KQED television, Published on Jul 6, 2012 by Computer History. The subject is the contribution to computing of Sir Maurice Wilkes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9DrKQ2isIk&list=UUHDr4RtxwA1KqKGwxgdK4Vg&

Live Chat NOW: LEO, the British computer that roared, 28th June 2013 (see http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/06/26/live_chat_leo/). Gavin Clarke, editor of The Register and members of the audience interview Frank and Ralph Land online in real time. The outcome is rather messy as questions and answers do not come out in a proper sequence.

at Google HQ in London 1st July 2013 to celebrate UK contribution to Information and Communications Technology. Featured the Video commissioned by Google for the 60th anniversary of LEO held at the Science Museum: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLG7EqWtzeIhXjSD4SdfPx1WQICKZMVcP4

BBC Magazine. Broadcast August 1st 2013 BBC Radio 4 at 13.45 as part of a 10 episode series  by Lucy Kellaway  entitled Lucy Kellaway's History of Office Life  and explores the changes brought about in the office by computers and this episode starts with a brief review of the LEO story including a photo of LEO I. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23509153

21st August 2013, 11.00 am BBC Radio 4.  Fronted by Martha Lane-Fox its contributors include, Mary Coombs, Dame Stephanie Shirley, Ann Moffat and Tilly Blythe.  From the 1950s to the mid-1970s in Britain, many of the pioneers of early computing were women. This was a highly skilled new world of work providing opportunities that were often in sharp contrast to the established norms of post-war British life, with new technology helping drive social change.

The series will start in the mid-1940s and finish in the early 21st century, concentrating the UK’s part in computing history between these years. The series features the story behind machines such as LEO, EDSAC, Baby and ERNIE as well as later breakthroughs such as packet switching, home computing, the BBC Micro and ARM microprocessors.
Program 2: LEO: The Electronic Office, 15th September 2015, 15 minutes. See http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b069rvb4

Reflections on Program: Peter Byford: I heard the programme in your Computing Britain series about LEO. Whilst I was delighted that you made a programme about LEO and Lyons, I was disappointed about a number of aspects about it.
You used our film and other recordings that we provided, I should also state that we hold the Copyright of the LEO film, made in 1957 as I told you. Despite this there was no acknowledgement of the Society or mention of its excellent website - see below. I looked at your website and there was no mention there either. Please correct this when you can and acknowledge the Society.
You used a number of people in your programme who were not LEO people to describe Lyons and LEO and possibly because of this you made some mistakes. The only LEO people the late Ernest Kaye, Mary Coombs and Gloria Guy were taken from recordings/YouTube that we provided to you. The Society has a number of quite eloquent speakers who are, of course, knowledgeable about LEO. We could have checked your facts corrected any errors you have made before it was broadcast. One significant error was that you stated that LEO was operational in 1956 - no it was in November 1951 when the first LEO program went operational.
I know Tilly Blythe of course, but who were that other people who were on the programme? Other than the presenter of course, they were not mentioned.

David Crawford in the Radio Times writes: “We live in a data driven world, where every industry you can think of relies on digital data, and there’s the constant threat of drowning in information overload. But why are we so enamoured of all this stuff, and how did we get to this point? Happily the ever enthusiastic Dr Hannah Fry – the Beeb’s new go to mathematician – is here to throw a lifebelt with this witty explainer. She argues that data is the bridge essential for scientific discovery, to move from problem to solution – and invaluable in the modern world. 

Along the way you’ll learn how J Lyons purveyor of fine British tea and cakes was at the forefront of the computer revolution.” The programme includes interviews with Mary Coombs and Frank Land.

Guardian Review at https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2016/jul/21/the-joy-of-data-review-who-knew-data-could-seem-so-magical-so-sexy

The Program was repeated on 18th September 2018 at 2.00 am


constructed and their many varied business uses, ranging from teashop inventories to Ford's payroll. Copyright LEO Computer Society. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8K-xbx7jBM Also held by Computer History Museum Silicon Valley http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/110/2260 and http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102705993

Management by its EDP Committee covering LEO I, Elliott 405 and Ferranti Pegasus. Available from Kevin Murrell at the National Museum of Computer History, Bletchley. Copy held by LEO Computers Society.


The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is the institution linking academics in the discipline of Information Systems world-wide and has a membership in excess of 3000. It selects members who have made outstanding contributions to the study and teaching of Information Systems for the LEO Award (its highest honour), named in remembrance of LEO the First Business Computer. The award was inaugurated in 1999. See https://aisnet.org/page/LeoAward

The LEO's are named after the world's first business computer. Created by the Lyons Company of the UK in 1951 and with installations in Australia by Tubemakers, Shell and Colonial Mutual. LEO was the first computer in the world to be used to solve complex analytic problems including (but not limited to) calculating disease among miners, ballistic problems of missiles, mortality rates for insurance companies, “flutter” in new aircraft, how to make rain by seeding clouds and even calculating tax tables.

The awards celebrate outstanding achievements in the full range of Business Intelligence and Information Management activities:

- to name a few. The awards are given to commercial organisations, government, and education initiatives as well as individuals who have excelled in the end-use of analytics and information management.

Governance of the LEO Awards is conducted by an Advisory Board consisting of seasoned members of the Australasian commercial, government and academic knowledge economy. The Board represent many industries and aspects of hands-on experience from the end-user community.

The awards were launched in 2010. See http://www.tbig.com.au/advisors/

The scholarship was set up to honour the achievements if David Caminer under the aegis of The LEO Computers Society . The Scholarship is funded through the generosity of the Association for Information Technology (AIT) and its Trustees, and is valued at £5000 per annum. The scholarships will be available to students who have demonstrated excellent academic potential. Applications are welcome from students who have fulfilled the admission criteria and been offered a place to study for a postgraduate degree based in the School of Engineering and Information Science. A student will only be entitled to one award during his/her period of study with Middlesex University. The first students were selected in 2011. See http://www.scholarship-search.org.uk/grants/the-david-tresman-caminer-postgraduate-scholarship-in-business-computing-supported-by-the-leo-foundation-and-ait-trust-at-middlesex-university/hc_edufin.page_pls_user_sch_dets/16180339/220707/sch_id/58303/page.htm

The 2014 award winner Tope Ashiru writes:

Receiving the Scholarship is mind blowing! It has restored me back on track and reinvigorated my career aspirations. My academic progression almost took a dark turn in the light of my father's prolonged illness which eventually took his life. I had thought it was all coming to a dramatic halt for me but the Scholarship came to the rescue! Now I can focus on finishing with a first class.”

The research leading to a PhD will investigate the role of LEO in the evolution of business computing with special emphasis on the philosophy which motivated a company in the food industry to build the world’s first business computer. The project supervisor is Dr Giuseppe Primiero of the Computer Science Department. The scholarship is funded by a grant from the AIT. See http://www.mdx.ac.uk/news/2016/03/first-ever-business-computer-to-be-researched-at-middlesex-university and http://www.mdx.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate-research-degrees/research-studentships/david-tresman-caminer-studentship-for-the-history-of-computing and tinyurl.com/j3oh6ow.

Miscellaneous and Unclassified

A copy can be found in Dropbox at https://www.dropbox.com/s/wy3xirkff35nae9/LEO%20II%201958%20Quote.pdf?dl=0


Index to documents etc. in 9 boxes of papers plus a box of journal articles and cuttings.

From DTC’s house in Sheen, catalogued January 2016 and added to May 2017

LEO papers in Sheen: BOX 1

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016



Description of Document





Manila folder: ‘Timing a LEO Job based on L5’




List of Talks for Winter Session 1951-52 and programme for discussion groups


Looks like a lovely piece of memorabilia



Manila folder: Layman’s Guide Drafts - Draft of Chapter 26 Input. Chapter 11 – The Coordinator - plus some flow diagrams

Approx. 10


Dec 1953

Manila folder: LEO II Test Programme M1/3 Technical material including lots of diagrams and flow-charts

30 plus



Manila folder: Inland Revenue specs. and tables with some handwritten notes and flow diagrams. DTC and unrecognised handwriting.

Approx. 10



Manila folder: Tea-blending

Paper and diagrams

Approx. 15



Manila folder: Tea Blending Control – Emergency system Method summary plus charts

4 plus charts



Manila folder: Development – Long term records. Copies of correspondence with Lord Halsbury, Managing Director NRDC and memo to DTC and John Pinkerton from Mr Simmons on a further draft



April 1957

Manila folder: Executive Course. Several copies of drafts and papers by DTC/PMG on: Parts Stores Jobs, Repetitive sequences, Costing and Production Control

Each 4-5 pages



Paper: Stewarts and Lloyds Seminar Choosing an Application by DTC



Undated ? as above

Paper: How to Prepare a Statement of Requirements for a Computer Application



March 1960

Paper: How to Make an Appraisal by DTC – appraisal of a computing job


Looks potentially useful to researchers


Undated, ? pre 1971

Booklet: Preparing for a Computer Management Consultants Association

8 A5

Looks potentially useful to researchers



Memo re Computer Appreciation Course for Top Civil Servants




Memo: Sales Consultants Course From Mr Gibson to 20 people including DTC, Messrs Aris, Comish, F Land, etc.

3 plus several lists re catering!



ICL binder: A Comparative Study of the Basic Language and the Synthetic Option Proposals for ICL’s New Range

Half inch thick



Dec 1969

Paper: ICL: New Range Organisation Aside Memoire Note by MLNF on a report of an investigation of possibilities for convergence of MU and ICL New Range Specifications

Approx 20



ICL binder: ICL New Range Marketing Plan:

Vol 3 Customers in the 70s

1 inch thick



ICL binder: ICL Business Plan: Report to New Range Working Party October 13th 1971

14 plus appendices






Dec 76



ICL folder: containing

NRPO Studies – memo by DTC to Mr L Lightstone, Director-Sales

Short Description of New Range – Mike Forrest

Note on New Range Data Management System – DTC

Features of New Range

Note from John Pinkerton re Paper by Professor M.V.Wilkes plus the paper and a comment on it by DTC

Outline Business Plan (John Aylett) and comments by DTC in October

Long-term Developments to 1900- note from DTC to Alan Bagshaw

Short Description of New Range – Mike Forrest











ICL Bound booklet: Pocket Guide to System B

17 – but very small – less than A5



Paper: Science Museum – History of the Computer Industry. From BM Murphy Controller, Public and Parliamentary Affairs at the Science Museum asking for perusal of their draft chronology on the occasion of the new gallery on computers and computing.


Possibly a useful insight?



Contract between Cap Sogeti Systems and ICL Belgium

Plus further details of contract

5 plus annexes



Feb. 1977

ICL Binder: The EEC Project Information Package


All about how to pack before leaving and tips on arrival in Lux!


May 1977

Papers: Letters from R F Evans to EEC re Demonstrations to be carried out before delivery of 2980 System.



01.05.77 – 31.10.77

CAP Sogeti: Estimation Preliminaire pour une premiere tranche des travaux de conversion


In French



CAP Sogeti: Conversion des Applications C.C.E


In French


Jan 1977

Paper: EEC Study Progress report by J Prades

8 plus time flow chart



Paper: A sizing for the EEC 2980

By L. Cohen


Highly Confidential – not to be copied


June 1977

Red binder: EEC Project- various memos etc. re June 18th Get-together.

Approx. 20

Mostly social re menus etc.



Kirchberg Bulletin: Journal of the EEC Project


Mostly social


March 1978

Early Programming Activity at the University of Cambridge –

First draft of paper by Martin Campbell-Kelly, Dept. of Maths and Computer Studies, Sunderland Polytechnic

55 plus appendices


April 1999

EDSAC 99 A bound paper on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the running of their first program on 5 May 1949. Chronology mentions LEO.


This seems a very useful archive document. It may be widely available already, but potentially useful for research.

Also a copy of Information Professional April/May 2004 the IEEE

No obviously relevant articles!!


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 2

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016








Flow-charts – Tracings of simple flow-charts. ‘Chocolate’ account and ‘Savings’ account




Report – Tea Blending – analysis of job, including pricing .



11.55 – 2.56

Handwritten pages of info re LEO II - order constants, patterns and working locations plus handwritten set of operating instructions and error locations


Handwriting not recognised



Draft Report: LEO Computers Ltd for C.A.V Ltd - - amended to read ‘Kodak’

Approx 20

Complete with timings and costings



Memos from DTC and Frank Land– comparison of policies and practice between LEO and English Electric

Approx 10



July 1966

Report: The flow of medical information in Hospitals - study commissioned by the Nuffield Hospitals Trust, undertaken by English Electric LEO Marconi Computers Ltd.

Huge file with flow charts – about 1 and a half inches thick

A very early example of systems, now probably very sophisticated but can still go horribly wrong



Advertising brochure for EEC System 4 – glossy and illustrated




Cap Sogeti Premiere tranche des travaux de conversion


In French



2900 Systems Acceptance Activity Chart SYSAC 4

Large flow chart


Around 1977

Article: ‘A European Success story’ typescript




ICL Technical Journal –

Vol 1 Issue 2, Vol 2 Issue 2, Vol 3 Issue 2 – 2 copies

Small bound booklets


September 2001

Papers on the theme: ‘The World and Business Computing in 2051’ entries for the NCC Prize

4 papers from Scotland, Israel and USA predicting the future!

About 6- 20 pages each – one includes a powerpoint


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 3

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016








Lectures – a Lyons series of lectures on Electronics organised by John Simmons

Approx. 20



Notes: Introduction to Programming 3 Sessions for LEO Technical staff

Approx. 15

Exercises and solutions



Inland Revenue Correspondence between LEO and Inland Revenue staff and Tax tables

DTC notes that standard charge per hour has been reduced from £75 - £50 as machine is more highly utilised.


2/53 – 9/57

Thick file of LEO Computers Limited Trading Analyses

2 inches thick!

Some interesting annotations



Folder: Job Requirements Littlewoods Mail Order Stores Ltd Stock Control



Up to Dec 1956

File; ‘Other Computers’

Includes info on other early computers and notes on visits and a colloquium at Cambridge, May 1952, notes on NPL etc

1 inch thick

This looks very good!

Note from DTC July 1957 ‘My impression is that IBM have a long way to go before they will be in a position to offer the planning and programming service that customers in this country are tending to demand.’



Draft Lecture notes by DTC - all handwritten! What a computer can do, Selecting a computer application, marketing

1½ inches


Nov/Dec 1964

Report and recommendations following visit to RCA by DTC, DJ Blackwell and ACD Haley

Approx 100

Marked confidential



English Electric Computers folder: The CAV integrated system – reprinted article from Data Systems by Laura Tatham




English Electric Computers booklet: System 4 Program trials system




English Electric Computers booklet: System 4-30 Software




Flow chart: 2900 Systems acceptance activity chart




EEC Contract No EEC/H/07 between the EEC and ICL Belgium

¾ inch


1/10/79 – 20/12/79

DTC Day file: Luxembourg matters


1/1/80 – 24/3/80

DTC Day file: Luxembourg matters

2 inches thick!



Report: on ‘Normal Running Demonstration’

1½ inches

v.technical – much in French



Report: on the performance of the CIRCE applications during 2980 Normal Running Demonstrations of 3rd – 15th December 1979 with notes

About 30

Some notes in French


Around 1980?

Report by DTC: On line data bases of the Commission of the European Communities

Approx 12

2 copies


May 1980

Addendum to Contract between EEC and ICL Belgium


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 4

Mostly EEC Luxembourg Project

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016







Jan – July 1970

DTC Day file

2 inches thick


Dec 1971

ICL New Range Introduction Strategy – submission to DTI




Dec 1971

ICL New Range Introduction Strategy – submission to DTI supplement





Profile of DTC as Manager of New Range Support Organisation and Job Charter


Includes photo



Various papers – on overtime pay, pricing also Lessons of a Conversion Study on New Range

About 20



Papers for Computing in Government seminar at St Leonards on Sea, including papers delivered

Approx. 50


September 1975

File of Reliability papers for 2900

1½ inches


February 1976

Systeme CRONOS pour la gestion des series chronologique


In French



File of papers on 2900 Marketing and System 4 User Group

About 20


Jan 1977

2900 Configuration Summary




Bound report CAP Sogeti on Conversion


In French



File of papers on Communications Facilities for EEC

About 70


March 1977

Correspondence between Central Computing Agency and ICL re ‘Value of 2900’



March 1977

Mixed file: on EEC contracts

1 inch thick


April 1977

File of papers on EEC liaison re 2900

About 30 plus

Focus on site preparation


November 1977

Five Year Plan : Bridging Services Organisation

Approx 50

Including flow charts on New Range


Nov 1977

File of papers on negotiating with EEC re computer in Luxembourg



December 1979

Report on the ‘Final Normal Running Demonstration’

1½ inches

Possibly duplicate of file in Box 2



Contract: EEC Contract no EEC/H/09 ‘The Provision of a 2976 Computer Facility’

Approx 30


Jan 1977

File of notes and papers relating to EEC project incl a network project paper

1 inch thick


Jan – April 1977

File of notes and memos relating to EEC project engineering and hardware issues incl diagrams and a full sheet of proposed layout of M/A room

1 inch thick

Input from Gilbert Foix, ICL France, Luxembourg


Sept 77 – June 1980

Kirchberg Bulletin – complete set of Journal of the EEC Project for all ICL participants

1 inch thick

Includes business and social aspects of the project


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 5

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016







September 1982

Report to Software Administration and Revenue Board

Approx 20


March 1983

File of notes and transparencies: software orders, revenue an margins

1 inch thick



NZ Post Office – file of technical papers

Approx 25



Correspondence file on NZ Post Office project and DTC’s contract




Agreement for Supply, Installation and Maintenance of Data Processing Equipment and the provision of software and associated services between the Postmaster of NZ and IC (NZ) Ltd.




File of letters about NZ Savings Bank matters incl some diagrams

1 inch thick



Planning file for 50th anniversary celebrations – memos and action lists

2 inches thick



PR file on the 50th anniversary containing many chronologies of early computing and articles

Nearly one inch thick

Potentially very useful!


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 6

Very early stuff- feels like handling history!

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016








Typescript of Chapter 7 Analysing Clerical work for LEO – annotations in handwriting by DTC

50 plus

No clue as to what the whole document was nor other bits of it!


1951 -3

File of notes, some handwritten of meetings re use of LEO – incl Simmons to Geoffrey Antony Salmon re use of LEO, and notes on timing and start dates of various jobs – incl payroll, teashops, etc and Premium Bonds



August 1952

Trial Technique – a technical paper with sets of results



June 1953

Flow charts on A4 tracing paper



April 1953/June 1952/May 1951

Paper: Checking errors in printed output by use of codes and duplicate printers, Use of a self-checking code on LEO (John Pinkerton)

Checkable code for printed results (DTC)

Self-checking codes (TRThompson)

Approx 15

References to coding used by EDSAC


June 1954

More on checking – Suppression of 15 character on programme tape, Matrices, , conversion of long numbers

Approx 15



LEO loading hours -for payroll, teashops, Orchard House, tea blending, wholesale bakery, ice cream and bakery

approx 15


February 1955

Outline flowcharts for Wholesale Bakery Invoicing

5 charts



File: How the Synthesis orders are used, incl tables and flow charts

Approx 20


Sept 1955 – Jan 1956

File on payroll charges including long lists of jobs and times



1956 - 1963

Northampton College of Advanced Technology, Islington, London – Flyers on various lecture series including computing. Text of Lecture: The Application of Electronic Digital computers and calculators to Accountancy, Costing and Managerial control, Lecture by DTC with Leo Fantl on application of digital computers to chrystallography

Approx 20

Very interesting indeed for anyone looking at early education in this field.

The College is now part of City University which was founded in 1966. Perhaps they might be interested?


October 1956

File of papers on: Journey planning for ice cream delivery, computer application discussions, stock control -The Tea stores Job,


Includes a punched card and some record slips for tea blend job


October 1956

The Electronic Office – a bound collection of articles assembled by the Liverpool and Merseyside Branch of the Office Management Association after their conference in April 1956.

Includes contribution from DTC ‘Experience of a General Purpose Computer’ and by Oliver Standingford on ‘Using a Computer service’ and ‘Multum in Parvo’ - his summary of papers and discussions at the conference.


Very interesting indeed – should be useful for anyone looking at this period in the uptake of computers.

HJTC has held on to this pro tem



Journal Proof – text of ‘ A Discussion on the Use of Electronic Processing Equipment’ held at the Royal Statistical Society – contributors from HM Treasury, DTC, Rolls Royce, Gallup Poll – points raised by Mr Berners-Lee (Ferranti)

Galley-proofs 8 pages


1958 - October 1960

File of papers: Work-loads of staff 1958, Mathematical Section workload 1958, Meeting with Shell-Mex Oct 1960

Approx 12


February 1959

Mixed file: Notes of lecture to HM Treasury, Feb 59, notes on tour of Wills in Nov 59, List of Principal Secretaries who attended talk on data processing Jan 64

Approx 12

LEO papers in Sheen: BOX No: 7

Catalogued by hjtc January 2016







August – Dec 1969

Day file


August – Dec 1970

Day file


January – April 1972

Day file


May – August 1972

Day file


Jan – July 1974

Day file


July – Dec 1975

Day file

LEO papers in Sheen: BOX 8

Catalogued by hjtc May 2016







Aug 1950

Manilla folder: Calculating Reciprocals

Modification of Orders whose addresses are specified relative to locations in other stages of the programme or to any other prescribed location’



Jan 1951

Manilla folder: Programming general. Some articles and lecture notes. E.g. Supervisors Manual. The technique of Office Management

40 ish


Jan 1951

Manilla folder: Trainees notes. Clerical work in relation to Materials and production

Relates to cake bakery


Jan 1951 and Nov 1954

Manilla folder: Test programmes. Tests, faults etc.


Charts on patterns etc.


Oct. 1951

Manilla folder: EDSAC Sequences




Manilla folder: Programme Errors . Mostly handwritten and with list of types of errors.




Manilla folder: Subroutine technique. Typescript of a draft with some pages in DTC’s handwriting.

20 plus


May 1952

Manilla folder: EDSAC Micro-programming. Notes on a colloquium at Cambreidge on EDSAC II



August 1953

Manilla folder: Initial Input Orders : Notes by DTC on Programme reading, Programme Input Method



June 1954

Manual costs under LEO and orthodox systems. Detailed breakdown of all costs

20 ish



Manilla folder: Inland Revenue PAYE Schedule D – details of work on tax tables. Visit of TRT to Somerset House.

20 ish


1955, 56, 57 mixed

Manilla folder: Lectures – General. Typed and handwritten by DTC.

1 Inch thick

e.g. Some remarks on Data Processing on LEO.

An Introduction to Programming etc.


April 1957

Blue Leo Computers folder: Leo Computers Ltd Training Course for programmers and Operators

15 pages

Timetable for course – and course outlines.


April 1957 – 196316

Manilla folder: Assorted lecture notes and letters regarding training.



April 1958

Blue Leo Computers folder: North Thames Gas Board Rental accounting Job Plan

1 inch thick

Section : How LEO does the job. Includes some handwritten notes.


July 1958

Blue folder: EDSAC Notes on a colloquium July 1958 and on John Pinkerton’s visit to EDSAC

20 ish


Sept 1958

Manilla folder: Invoices this quarter. Itemised bills for computing work done – labour and materials.

Half inch


Oct. Nov 1958

Manilla folder: Leo Computers Ltd Invoices. Itemised bills for work done at Elms House fro other firms – e.g British Oxygen, Fords etc.

20 ish


January 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Limited Sales Procedures Job Plan Volume I


January 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Limited Sales Procedures Job Plan Volume II


April 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Limited Production Procedures Job Plan Volume I

1 inch thick


April 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Limited Production Procedures Job Plan Volume II

1 inch thick


May 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Report for Renold Chains Limited Prepared by JP Halpin

50 pages approx.


July 1959

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Eagle Star Insurance Co Ltd Specification for level premium group pension scheme take-on and renewals Volume II LEOII/1

Landscape format – detailed data for inputting.

I inch thick

Has specimen pages and pro-formas/


July 1961

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Ltd. Pilot scheme for production procedures Job Plan : Volume One

Three-quarter inch


July 1961

Blue Leo Computers folder:

Renold Chains Ltd. Pilot scheme for production procedures Job Plan : Volume Two

Quarter inch

Mostly flow charts


July 1963 onwards

Manilla folder: New computer systems – memos on New families of computers with costs by JMMP , CW Woodall

20 plus


LEO papers in Sheen: BOX 9

Catalogued by hjtc: June 2017








Check routines – checks to programmes, part hand-written. Manilla folder


Incl a memo from August ‘49



Planning a Programme – Job (C 14)




Tea shop orders (very detailed)


Insight into food in the 50s – list of all products



L.2 Tea shop orders


Management info. – lists of major alterations



Leo Initiation Course – syllabus. timetables and content with programming e.gs




Systems Research Method Summary L.5 Wholesale bakery invoicing. Weekly routines – details of despatch methods.




Wholesale Bakery Invoicing L.5 Method summary

Half inch!

specimens, detailed charts, some samples



LEO Requirements of a clerical job L5 Wholesale Bakery Invoicing. Specimens and schedules. Revision 1. Specimen folder

Hand –written samples of forms.



LEO Job Requirements Statement . L5 Wholesale Bakery. Direct sales by reps. Invoicing

Includes proformas



Ice Cream Journey Planning and Sales Statistics 8/9/55 (Green folder)


Specimen charts



I.T.C (Imperial Tobacco)

John Gosden’s report re visits to Bristol. V detailed. Also details of a Mathieu paper cutting machine

Smells of tobacco. Includes charts.



Teashops orders – detailed costing


Specific savings cited.



Tea-buying Control . L4 Job Requirements

A very clear and neat dossier



Tea Blending Job Requirements. Specimens and charts



Management minutes.

Anthony Salmon/Simmons/TRT/Tony Barnes/ DTC/John Pinkerton

1 inch thick



LEO Trading Analysis Detailed budgets on forms



Programming Progress report. New Jobs – lists of firms using LEO II



Setting LEO to Work – Programming a Job (Pay roll)




LEO III Training Courses. CLEO I Exercise on batting averages for a cricket club.


Includes pro-formas



J Lyons and Company Personnel and Training Bulletin (pale green folder)


Moral thoughts on training



New Range Product Planning Integrating LEO III with KDF 6 and 9

LEO papers in Sheen: BOX 10

Catalogued by hjtc: June 2017








The Layman’s Guide to LEO – author not stated. In a black leatherette binding


With diagrams



Wholesale Bakery Invoicing L5A Main Daily Job Specimens




Wholesale Bakery Invoicing L5B Daily Cash Balance Specimens



Wholesale Bakery Invoicing L5C Compilation of Cash Colletion Lists Specimens



February 1956

Draft Job Specification L1 Payroll

Unbound copy


March/April 1958

Summary of Visits made in the USA by DT Caminer and JMM Pinkerton


January 1959

Report for The Dunlop Rubber Company


January 1959

The Renold Chain Company Ltd Sales Procedures Job Plan Volume 1


April 1959

The Renold Chain Company Ltd Production Procedures Job Plan Volume 1


February 1959

Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance Specifications for Payroll Part I Sections and Notes


February 1959

Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance Specifications for Payroll

Part II Schedules and Specimens


July 1959

British Oxygen Gases Ltd Edmonton Works Job Plan Volume II Control Jobs

1 inch thick

Bound blue folder with charts


July 1959

C.A. V. Ltd. Specification for Payroll E56


October 1962

Kayser Bonder Ltd. Specifications for Retail Outlet. Accounts and Statistics




American Diary John Aris

Dates seem to point to 1968 but not stated anywhere.




(non-originals listed in italics)

List compiled by hjtc Jan 2016



Relevant content

June 1983

Newsdesk – the newsletter of ICL New Zealand

Item on winning the NZ Savings Bank business


ICL PLC Corporate Report 1993

24 page glossy sales brochure

November 1999

Computer Weekly Supplement

IT@2000 – 50 years of information technology

Timeline lists 1951 LEO performs the world’s first commercial calculation for Lyons and Co in the UK

Article (4 pages) by Nicholas Enticknap ‘Not just another good idea – the invention of digital computing – photo of LEO and other early computers

Article ( 7 pages) by Julie Vowler ‘We’ve come full circle’ – a brief history of the IT department – section on LEO, contributed by Frank Land

Feb 2000 Volume 10

Issue 1

IMIS Journal*

HC has original

Back to Basics –interview with DTC on programming discipline 4 pages – 4 copies


Evening Standard

Article PCs celebrate 20 years on the beat by Ross Davies photo of DTC


The Times supplement Tomorrow’s Today

2 page spread p 20-21 on Development of computer from LEO I to a (sort-of) tablet! Includes picture of LEO I


Financial Times

Article ‘The lion that failed to roar’ Leo. The first business computer gained little recognition says Fiona Harvey

Autumn 2001 Vol VII No 3

Convergence - The Wall Street Journal’s magazine of Digital Business

David Caminer analyzes what went wrong with one of the world’s first computers, the LEO by Richard L. Hudson 1 b page

Feb 2002 ISSN 1366-6851

Project Manager Today (2 copies)

Photo of LEO I on Cover

The Day LEO Roared – DTC on the world’s first business computer (3 pages)

Dec 2002 Vol 13 No 6

Computing &Control Engineering Journal

LEO and the Computer Revolution by DTC – text of Pinkerton Lecture (8 pages)

Feb 2003

IEEE Computing and Control Engineering Journal

A Modern Real-time Software Design Tool – Applying Lessons from LEO by Ferdinand Wagner an Peter Wolstenholme 5 pages

May 2004 Vol 5 No 5

Journal of the Association for Information Systems

The legacy of LEO – lessons learned from an English Tea and Cake Company’s Pioneering Efforts in Information Systems by Richard O. Mason

Typescript of ‘final version’ of text – 44 pages also Photocopy that gets v faint by the end! Approx 20 pages


Typescript of Review

Carry on LEO’ Review of ‘A Computer Called LEO’ by Georgina Ferry by Antony Bryant, Leeds Metropolitan University

Unknown: post 2003

Data ??

Possibly Data Management

Article ‘This mad – What, me worry? A history of LEO among an article on how operating systems grow out of control. Photo of DTC and John Simmons by Ivo Vegter 3 pages


BCS - Celebrating 50 Years

Illustrated booklet

Chapter ‘Birth of an Industry and the BCS’ features Maurice Wilkes, photo of LEO I and potted history of LEO. Quotation by DTC ‘Maurice Wilkes is one of the heroes of our nation and one of the most uncelebrated.’

Memorabilia etc.


Newspaper – The Times?

Death announcement for John Simmons



Collection of LEO programming sheets